I mean, come on. The caps let you know it’s serious academic work… Do you have any excuse? If you pretend to care about this stuff. It’s a desperate attempt to make the “gender binary” disappear while using the exact genetics which prove it beyond a doubt. As well as your eyes, I mean. It’s a 200+ page lesson in doublethink. I literally don’t have enough words to mock this.
I mean, Exeter. Bottom of the rung.
Abstract; [bold mine]
Genetic sex -the apparent fundamental biological cause of the two male and femalehuman varieties– is a 20th century construct. Looking down the microscope, the stainedchromosomes are concrete countable entities and lend themselves easily to geneticdeterminism. As the chromosome composition of a person is generally fixed at the timeof conception, when a Y- or X-bearing sperm is united with the X-bearing egg, aperson’s genetic sex is taken as permanent and unchanging throughout their life.Drawing upon gender theory as well as science and technology studies this thesisexplores how our particular construction of the concept of ‘genetic sex’ relies on fourfeatures of biological sex (binary, fixed, spanning nature, and found throughout thebody) and in addition proposes one unique feature, inheritance.The empirical research is based on an analysis of popular science books as well as twocase studies of how genes relate to sex determination and development. The analysis ofthe metaphors used in these books and journal articles reveals how now, with genomicefforts to explore gene expression profiles, there is a shift away from seeing genes ashaving ‘responsibilities’ for determining phenotypes towards seeing them play a rolealong with other genes in genetic cascades where other factors such as timing can beincorporated. The analysis of genomic features such as imprinting and X-chromosomeinactivation also provide evidence that such a change should be recognised.
Rather than seeing sex in terms of fixed and static differences and similarities, current researchoffers new ways of conceptualising similarities and differences as dynamic andresponsive to environment. This supports wider understandings of ‘biology’ as relyingon the interactions between genetic processes, cellular environment, and tissueenvironment – in which the social physicality of bodies is important in forming andmaintaining a person’s biology and genetic processes. Yet as the historical analysis ofthe shift between the one sex to two sex model indicates, it remains to be seen whetherthe social sphere will respond by incorporating this new evidence into the tacit,everyday understandings of sex or seek to maintain the binary and fixed relationship(s)between men and women by governing them as males and females.