Women have more genetic material to cushion the blow, otherwise we wouldn’t be capable of producing both sexes.
Men certainly have the weaker hand at a raw level.
You could see civilization as a way to protect men who’d otherwise be booted out the tribe at the first sign of competition or war or would otherwise die early from fighting in a natural environment. There’ll always be an evolutionary need for women, and society ensures men live much longer than they previously did, by decades. The men who would’ve killed them keep them on as labour with the promise of a mate who would’ve otherwise rejected them, lacking the ability to dominate the local arena.
The researchers arrived at three major discoveries: (1) There were shorter leukocyte telomeres in men born after 1923 after the mass famine ended than in men born before 1922; (2) there was a stable inheritance of shorter telomeres by men born in ensuing generations; and (3) there was an absence of any correlation between shorter telomeres and women born before or after the event.
I guess you could be cruel and say those men are the children of failure r-types who couldn’t hunt or grow enough food (eating the seed crop, high time pref) and this is natural selection weeding them out of the gene pool.
“This study, while demonstrating that starvation has the potential to shorten telomere length, raises several questions,” said Prof. Kobyliansky. “Does starvation exert a stronger effect on telomere length in the reproductive cells of adults than in the leukocytes of children? Is starvation-induced telomere shortening a sex-dependent phenomenon? And would fasting regimens exerting beneficial effects be accompanied by telomere shortening in descendants?”
yes obviously duh, less pluripotency, filing this under epigenetics because it involves the germline
yes look at the findings there is clear effect on one side and FA on the other
depends, like anything dietary
The face-slappingly obvious Darwinian explanation is that women need to be biologically hardier since, with our numbers dropping, the species risks extinction. sperm is cheap, eggs are expensive again
Famine may be an epigenetic punishment for poor foraging behaviours, that acts like a genetic disease without being strictly genetic in origin.