Teachers’ unions HATE THEM!

Need a piece of paper? You sure?

Moneyball your education.

http://www.openculture.com/free_certificate_courses

Delicious progress.

“You can’t put a price on a good education.”

You know, you were right….

Teachers will, by and large, go the way of horse-shoe makers and coachmen.

Protip: I know a lot of people who do these. Take 2 fun courses (they can be zany) for every 4 serious ones.

Eat your aluminium, thots

That’s right, smear on a lipstick full of shimmery bullshit. Including lead (and wonder why girls are depressed). [Literally eating lead.]

The Victorians ate arsenic but this is worse. Arsenic temporarily improved the complexion.

Using the term ‘mica’ for what’s essentially powdered foil suggests women wouldn’t want it if they knew what it was.

It isn’t like there’s a connection between dissected and tested Alzheimer’s plaques and aluminium deposits, is there?

Why are the Boomers raised on cans of this stuff seeing an explosion in Alzheimer’s rates?

As always, at first, go to the ‘officials’. Find out the Party Line.

https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-dementia/risk-factors-and-prevention/metals-and-dementia
Although aluminium has been seen in amyloid plaques”

K.

“there is no solid evidence that aluminium is increased in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease.”
Whew, what cognitive dissonance.
It’s literally forming those plaques that ARE the disease but nbd?

Solid evidence – like a solid chemical analysis of solid plaques in the solid brains of solid dead people with Alzheimer’s?

Look at the hustle to move those goalposts.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070813185007.htm
“Because some people with the disease had aluminum deposits in their brains, it was thought that there was a direct connection…”
Well… yeah.
That’s proof.
There’s no negative evidence possible for that to stop being proof.

It’s literally in their brains.

“However, after many years of study, no conclusive evidence links aluminum to neurodegenerative disease”
Bullshit, 2007.

I detest scientism. Look at these papers and tell me what’s ‘conclusive’.

(Apart from donations of mega-corps to Super PACs to prevent this mega-lawsuit).

“A multi-institutional team of researchers has defined for the first time how metal ions bind to amyloid fibrils in the brain in a way that appears toxic to neurons. Amyloid fibrils are linked to the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Creutzfeldt-Jakob. Although metal ions, most notably copper, can bind to amyloid in several specific ways, the researchers found that only one way appears toxic.”

But how, ‘critics’ argue, could this possibly occur? What’s the mechanism? Nobody has proven a mechanism….?

2011:

“Link between Aluminum and the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease: The Integration of the Aluminum and Amyloid Cascade Hypotheses”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3056430/

“In particular, the link between aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease has been the subject of scientific debate for several decades. However, the complex characteristics of aluminum bioavailability make it difficult to evaluate its toxicity and therefore, the relationship remains to be established.”

Uhuh. Isn’t that your job?

If it’s impossible, why are you getting paid?

“On the contrary, aluminum is a widely recognized neurotoxin that inhibits more than 200 biologically important functions and causes various adverse effects in plants, animals, and humans.”

True.

Mounting evidence has suggested that significance of oligomerization of β-amyloid protein and neurotoxicity in the molecular mechanism of AD pathogenesis. Aluminum may play crucial roles as a cross-linker in β-amyloid oligomerization.

Here, we review the detailed characteristics of aluminum neurotoxicity based on our own studies and the recent literatures. Our aim is to revisit the link between aluminum and AD and to integrate aluminum and amyloid cascade hypotheses in the context of β-amyloid oligomerization and the interactions with other metals.”

But HOW could this POSSIBLY operate? – intellectually dishonest douches.

Note the prestige of journal. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, those hacks.

But on a MOLECULAR level…. – douchecanoes.

https://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jms.739
“Quantification of the Aβ peptide in Alzheimer’s plaques by laser dissection microscopy combined with mass spectrometry”

It’s behind a paywall but it’s there. Check the academic pirate bay.

http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/2000/articles/2000-v15n01-p021.shtml
It’s been known for a while.
2000: “Aluminum has been identified as a neurotoxin for over 100 years.”

So stop using it in food, cosmetics, deodorant, cookware and cans?

Their use actually came in well after it was a known neurotoxin. Because that isn’t dodgy.

Reference for that sentence:

Doelken P:Naunynschmiedeberger. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 40: 58-120 cited by Crapper McLachlan DR., Lukiw WJ, Kruck TPA, Aluminum, altered transcription, and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Environ Geochem Health, 1990; 12(1-2): 103-114.

Link for that: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01734059

Opening paragraph.

“The etiology of some, if not all, cases of Alzheimer’s disease is linked to a mutation in the proximal portion of the long arm of chromosome 21∶21q11.2 → 21q22.2. While the functional consequences of the mutation are unknown, we speculate that one consequence of the mutation is loss of the natural barriers and intracellular ligands for aluminum. As a result, aluminum gains access to several brain sites including the nuclear compartment in certain neurons of the central nervous system.”

I know both my shit and my bullshit.

1990. Who owns the aluminium? That’d be a fun tour of genocide.

https://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ana.410310310
1992 laser study, note prestige of journal.

What the fuck do they know, right, reddit?

“Selective accumulation of aluminum and iron in the neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer’s disease: A laser microprobe (LAMMA) study”

“In addition, probe sites directed to neurons identified in snapfrozen cryostat sections from 2 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease revealed similar spectra with prominent aluminum‐related peaks, confirming that our findings are not related to exogenous contamination through fixation, embedding, or other procedures prior to analysis. This study further confirms the association of aluminum and neurofibrillary tangle formation in Alzheimer’s disease.”
1992.

But I guess I’m just scared of non-stick pans, where’s the evidence?

Marriage relieves stress, biologically

Don’t listen to Hollywood.

This Is the Secret Benefit of Marriage You Didn’t Even Realize

“A new study published in the journal PLOS One has provided evidence that having a spouse by your side can be a real stress reliever in a moment of crisis.”
“Interestingly enough, a 2018 study found that when romantic partners hold hands, their breathing, heart rate, and even brain wave patterns actually sync up, which enables them to relieve both emotional and physical pain. But this new BYU study is unique in that it used a more biological means of measuring stress, as opposed to relying on surveys.”

“The study also builds upon previous research that being married can help lower your blood pressure, body mass index, and cholesterol levels, reduce your risk of heart disease and dementia, and even boost your overall longevity. For more on this, find out why Science Says a Happy Spouse Means a Longer Life.”

happy wife, happy life
women don’t need to be told the reverse

If there were a supplement that provided all these benefits, the MGTOW lot would be jumping for it.

I think people would respect them more if they just admitted they haven’t found the right one, no shame in that.

Study Here: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212703

“A new study that was published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that when romantic partners hold hands, their breathing, heart rate, and even brain wave patterns actually sync up. According to pain researchers, the more those brain waves synchronize, the more the pain that either of them feel subsides.”

Sweet hand-holding study: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/02/16/1703643115

“The mechanisms that underlie social touch analgesia are largely unknown.* Here, we apply a hyperscanning approach with real-life interaction of dyads to examine the association between brain-to-brain coupling and pain relief. Our findings indicate that hand-holding during pain increases the brain-to-brain coupling network that correlates with the magnitude of the analgesia and the observer’s empathic accuracy. These findings make a unique contribution to our understanding of physiological mechanisms of touch-related analgesia.”

Look at the studies. Seems pretty biological to me. It had to pass Ethics.

The male pain is reduced more, it’s just difficult to tell since female results cluster.

Right end of the red line, compare to left legend. Male reduces to zero.

In real terms, the superior improvement of men should be reported.

*Unknown = pair bonding, idiots.

An important nb:

Why is all the religious stuff healthy?

Prayer, fasting, marriage, fidelity, community.

Activates the almonds.

Social evolution et al.

So it’s especially unhealthy that marriage rates have dropped among the working-class.

Why aren’t there rent controls on the cost of weddings? Just a basic wedding.

Not those poncy ice sculptures of a swan, screw those.

Male suicides up because of Netflix

You only figured they hate us after the child porn ‘scandal’? Really?

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0890856719302886

The release of 13 Reasons Why was associated with a significant increase in monthly suicide rates among U.S. youth aged 10 to 17 years. Caution regarding the exposure of children and adolescents to the series is warranted.

Were they mostly white too?

Caution? Fuck caution, I want arrests. This was incitement.

Since it involves gory scenes of criminal acts, children shouldn’t be anywhere near it.

I don’t think you can accurately claim women as the hysterical over-emotional sex when males commit more self-murder, a crime, as well as other murder. This is clearly irrational self-destruction, in its most literal sense.

So you often see men murder their own children before themselves, because it’s all murder.

From the PDF:

Imitation may have contributed to the increase in the male youth suicide rate after the release of 13 Reasons Why, given a male adolescent character made a serious suicide attempt by firearm at the end of the series. A well-known gender paradox in suicide also exists, with male rates of suicide being higher than female rates and female rates of attempted suicide being higher than male rates across the lifespan.

Across lifespan – so…. duh. Control for that and it vanishes.

Self-murder must be shamed, (possibly mocked*) and legally punished (like France confiscating all of their belongings), romanticizing it and showing examples makes it more probable (Werther effect).

Degeneracy includes cultural or self-indulgence of self-destruction.

This is toxic. This is actively corrupting the young. That is a crime when we call it grooming.

And the idea of kids not being influenced is a blatant lie, fathers doing this should be ashamed too.

“Serious” attempt – all of them? Like, taking the male example, this is the worst example a provider can provide.

It’s the least masculine thing possible, stop trying to sex it up, Hollywood!
[Note: many so-called men who commit ‘suicide’ when others rely on them also refuse the prospect of a draft and won’t join the military, this cowardly fact demonstrates how it’s purely self-indulgent and not plain psychiatric ‘suffering’ because we have medications for that.]

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804892/

The current study aimed to examine whether a family history of suicidal acts predicts severity of suicide attempts.

It does.

Of all the examples of a provider, offing yourself in mildly difficult times (globally, historically, economically) is a disgrace.

Let’s not mince words, I don’t when women are at fault either. Snowflakes go home.

Social learning theory holds that we must hold these criminals responsible.

It is a disgrace and the word needs to come back into usage. If you take on a responsibility (spouse, kids) then you’d better damn well not ragequit because you racked up credit card bills on showing off to the neighbours. WTF.

Responsibilities are called commitments for a reason.

A free man with no commitments? Different but no less toxic culturally.

A man who is setting examples and has people who depend on him to survive? Like a stay at home mother who can’t get back into the workforce? Fuck you for saying that’s a ‘choice’. That’s a weak man. Don’t take on what you don’t want to be responsible for. We must hold men accountable as the head of the house if they take on that role. 

No half-arsing, blaming women or complaining it’s ‘hard’ like they’re down a coal mine farting black.

They abuse their gender role by claiming to have all the accountability and then wimping out like a child** (adultery/cucking, divorce, abandoning kids, substance abuse, domestic violence), when it turns out to be harder than glamorous 50s postcard martini sipping after work. Fucking DUH. I’d be interested in a study of father and mother history because I’d assume the father’s suicide to have a larger effect (being the provider).

**We must expect men to be men again. Penis doesn’t qualify. Nobody will respect you on the basis of chromosomes, male of female. This is silly. Those delusional ones appeal to a time that has never existed (Biblical times tested men and failures resulted in death).

I’ll bet the number of ‘successful’ suicides among males disproportionately came from the under-diagnosed male borderlines. Put that information out there, not ‘killing yourself as revenge’ propaganda.

I almost think the MRAs like other men offing themselves, they seem giddy to talk about it. Oddly, they never want vulnerable men to obtain diagnosis and treatment before that point so either they logically want to abuse the situation for attention (a borderline trait) or they hate their fellow man so much they perversely see less competition for women as a good thing? It’s twisted but destroying your own sex is still sexism. Corrupting them and filling their head with tall tales about how great suicide is, that’s standard sociopath or borderline fare.

Such males replace the father, who usually wasn’t around.

MRAs would have no following were it not for deadbeats.

The superego forms based on what your parents do and society accepts.

The Suicide Paradox (Rebroadcast)

Even reporting suicide can prime (already weak) people into doing it (so the porn violence thing must occur, among others).

Glamorizing it is blatant incitement, like the pathetic Elliot attention*. Rich entitled kid can’t buy love, news at 11.

or Mixed race guy ask where the white women at? or Idiot tries to demand respect.

So much so-called masculine media glamorizes suicide too (WW1 films, 300) that toxic masculinity, if properly defined, would align closely to degeneracy as it is used to weaken men specifically.

Literally, to degenerate man.

‘Toxic masculinity’ is the Left’s way of referring to male self-destruction. With different ideals, for Marxist, anti-natal purposes. The premise of degeneracy has been true since late-stage Rome. Very Zeus. Terrible father, husband, angry drunkard, bored, vain, foolish rapist.

Just like ‘toxic femininity’ is fake nice, also valuing itself by promiscuous sexual attention and wants to conceive only to murder the baby post-birth. Very Lilith. Same vices, with the genders switched.

Both sexes deserve positive, strong examples. The ancients didn’t respect Zeus because he had a beard and they didn’t respect Lilith for having breasts. They mocked their deities constantly for their human flaws. All Zeus did was sit around waiting to get offended. Original broflake.

Goethe was harsher than I’m being:

And now you want to hold a writer accountable and condemn his work, which, misinterpreted by a few dim-witted souls, may have rid the world of a dozen idiots and ne’er-do-wells who didn’t know any better than to blow out the weak remainder of what little light they had!

Don’t hold others accountable for idiots’ actions.

Count it in the crime stats.

Don’t glamorize male death nor incite it.

It’s almost like humanity NEEDED war as a pressure release valve for the rest of the time.

Ask yourself: are the men who kill themselves in the most peaceful time of human history capable of providing for a family, in any reality? When we mess with natural selection, nature has a funny way of course-correcting, although many suicides are likely preventable.

If society were a meritocracy, some people will lose out. They’re just louder now.

Hook-up culture’s natural outcome: rising impotence

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2019/apr/22/sexual-dysfunction-cuts-risk-leaving-thousands-in-uk-without-help

Of course, they’re willing to sell you medical interventions.

Maybe snake oil?

Just don’t give up porn or stop fucking around.

Because while you’re weirdly the first active generation to have these problems EVER, it cannot be modern habits empowering, sorry, causing them.

And in the women’s case especially, it isn’t their bodies telling them (as in the men’s) that not bonding* with the sexual partner fully (emotionally) eventually causes physical problems?

Nah, can’t be. Would the sexologists of postmodern academia lie about this?

Don’t look at the conservative sex life study, whatever ya do.

Nor ask if they’re vegan. Check their hormones. Nah. Sure it’s fine.

*What would that even be called? Who ever heard of pair bonding in evolutionary mating patterns?

https://www.amazon.com/Hooked-Science-Casual-Affecting-Children/dp/0802450601

As one reviewer pointed out how sluts whip manwhores:

Often referred to as the “monogamy molecule,” vasopressin seems to be the primary cause of men attaching to women with whom they have close and intimate physical contact.

into marrying the ho.

Pig brains revived hours post-mortem

But go ahead, be an organ donor!

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190417132805.htm

You won’t feel a thing!

“Circulation and cellular activity were restored in a pig’s brain four hours after its death, a finding that challenges long-held assumptions about the timing and irreversible nature of the cessation of some brain functions after death.”

Long-held?

These are the people you trust to know when you’re actually dead.

They might as well be informed by entrails.

Waist-Hip Ratio and female beauty

The sexual dimorphism for this metric is obviously lowest on Asians.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8366421

Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30-60 years. Study 2 shows that college-age men find female figures with low WHR more attractive, healthier, and of greater reproductive value than figures with a higher WHR. In Study 3, 25- to 85-year-old men were found to prefer female figures with lower WHR and assign them higher ratings of attractiveness and reproductive potential. It is suggested that WHR represents an important bodily feature associated with physical attractiveness as well as with health and reproductive potential. A hypothesis is proposed to explain how WHR influences female attractiveness and its role in mate selection.

Hello sexual selection, tied intimately to natural selection.

PDF here: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/05d6/0e201efb208e8561641d13df30fc6ba3bc1a.pdf

also connected to “desire and capability for having childrenp7 or 299.

so K-type women may have better WHR.

Normal weight women have the most positive attributes associated.

Overweight category was universally unattractive.
It’d be nice to see a male study on this. I think Western women would want more children if fewer men were obese.

Why Asians are considered youthful but not sexy (they’d usually fall in the underweight group):

The variables of attractiveness, sexiness, and good health were located close to each other, suggesting that subjects perceived them to be closely related.

Attributes of desire and capability for having children were located close to each other in the solution space but farther from attractiveness, sexiness, and good health, implying that subjects did not perceive a great similarity between these two sets of attributes.

Finally, the attribute of youthfulness was located alone and away from both sets of other attributes. Thus, subjects apparently did not perceive youthfulness to be related to any other measured attributes of good health, sexiness, attractiveness, and desire and capability for having children.

So there’s that. Nobody’s jealous.

Figure N7 was located closer to attractiveness, sexiness, and good health as well as desire and capability for having children than any other Figure.

Normal weight for frame (and race) + most nubile WHR would make sense.
More of those genes survived.

Figure N9 was located closest to desire and capability for having children, whereas Figure N8 was located between Figure N7 and Figure N9. The figure N10 was grouped along with overweight figures, which were not perceived to be closely associated with any of the attributes under investigation. Underweight female figures, U7 and U8, were associated only with youthfulness. However, underweight figures with high WHR (U9 and U10) were perceived as neither youthful nor healthy, in spite of the fact that their depicted body weight was quite similar to figures with lower WHR.

Women with an atrocious WHR (boy hips, no waist) and under or overweight for their skeleton are objectively unattractive from an evolutionary standpoint. This would apply whether it’s a Jap, a Ruskie or an American.

Stop calling sexy science ‘racist’ because it doesn’t share your fetish.

This chart drags you harder than I ever could.

Your Asian girlfriend with the boy hips is approximately as attractive to the world as the average WHR white fat chick. That’s your level, accept it.

It’s also a fact we cannot accurately perceive attractiveness of the racial outgroup as well as our own, so an awareness of ingroup flaws changes nothing.

Most modern women straight up don’t look healthy, whether they’re American, European or, yes, Asian.

Stop trying to make boy hips = sexy happen. It’s not going to happen.

Look at the damn gradient on that underweight thing. The solution to fat women isn’t anorexia. That also suggests bad genes. In fact, at least the fat percentage on slightly overweight 0.7 WHR women suggests femininity and fertility.

“Overall, it seems that subjects inferred reproductive capability from body fat”

What does a foetus feed from?

“Thus, it seems that although WHR is related to health and attractiveness, body weight is perceived to be related to reproductive capability”

Obviously.

“As a group, underweight figures were assigned the lowest reproductive capability, followed by overweight figures and then normal weight figures.”

Suck on that, soyboys.

You actually tend to downgrade. That’s why the Democrat-voting soyboys all want an Asian girlfriend and expressly don’t want kids with it.

“Overall, it appears that both fatness and thinness are perceived as unattractive, and such figures are not perceived as having especially high reproductive potential. “

Not womanly. Remember that word? This:

Not girly, not sexy, not cute, not hot. Womanly.

You can’t discuss women in a reproductive, evolutionary context without it.

Thus, consistent with the present findings, men did not find thin or underweight figures attractive.

If you only care for other male opinions.

There is some evidence that suggests that being extremely underweight or overweight can have adverse effects on female reproductive functions.

Ya don’t say?

A critical body mass has been shown to be significantly related to the onset of menstrual cycle and its maintenance (Frisch & McCarthur, 1974), although recent evidence (DeRidder et al., 1990) suggests that it is the body fat distribution, rather than body fat mass or body weight, that is related to early pubertal development.

Distribution varies by race.

Africans are the most pronounced in women then Europeans shapely but delicate then Asians last – no shape, very yang flesh (broad but flat or full in the middle like cortisol fat) and almost nothing to distribute.

Am I imagining all of this?

Underweight females (15% below ideal body weight) have been reported to have a higher incidence of oligomenorrhea (menses 35 days or more apart) and amenorrhea and to have a higher prevalence of ovu-latory infertility than normal weight females (Green, Weiss, & Daling, 1986).

Underweight women also give birth to infants who are small and growth delayed, and such infants often have permanently impaired intellectual and physical development (Supy, Steer, McCusker, Steele, & Jacobs, 1988).

Menstrual dysfunction and ovulatory infertility also occur more often in females who are 20% above ideal body weight (Green et al., 1986). Morbid obesity in females with high WHR has been shown to increase the degree of androgenicity (increased percentage of free testosterone) and associated menstrual and ovulatory problems (Kirschner & Samojilik, 1991). Thus, the reproductive success of a woman may be low in spite of a high level of fat deposits if the regional distribution of fat is not appropriate, that is, gynoid.

=Womanly.

Finally, the finding that underweight figures were assigned high rankings for youthfulness but not for attractiveness (or other attributes related to reproductive potential) is difficult to reconcile with some evolutionarily based mate selection hypotheses.

Normal men aren’t pedos.

Youthfulness and health have been proprosed as absolute criteria for female attractiveness (Symons, 1987).

Stick with health.

Health has good or bad, you have no negative way to assess youth e.g. immature.

Features of physical appearance associated with youth supposedly provide the strongest and most reliable cues for female reproductive potential. The present finding illustrates that the relationship of youthfulness and attractiveness is quite complex.

Not really.

A woman who is judged to be attractive is also found to be youthful; however, youthfulness alone does not make a woman attractive. Apparently, youthfulness is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition, for determination of female physical attractiveness.

crazed pointing-

also, don’t try to chalk this up to taste:

“Furthermore, if the ideal of female attractiveness is arbitrary and ever changing, no evidence of transgenerational stability in the meaning of WHR should be found, as older men are more likely to be exposed to different ideals of attractiveness than are younger men.”

but

“Older men did not associate health with underweight figures, including those with lower WHR.”

TLDR: Pedos are wrong. Underweight, waistless wonders are not attractive.

Study 2, rubbing salt in that fact.

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0009042

Optimal Waist-to-Hip Ratios in Women Activate Neural Reward Centers in Men

Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of “good genes” in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (∼0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes.

These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men’s neurological processing.

Quality.

Study 3

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0018506X08002298

Men report stronger attraction to femininity in women’s faces when their testosterone levels are high

Many studies have shown that women’s judgments of men’s attractiveness are affected by changes in levels of sex hormones. However, no studies have tested for associations between changes in levels of sex hormones and men’s judgments of women’s attractiveness. To investigate this issue, we compared men’s attractiveness judgments of feminized and masculinized women’s and men’s faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high and test sessions where salivary testosterone was relatively low.

This is why we need studies on men too.

Men reported stronger attraction to femininity in women’s faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high than in test sessions where salivary testosterone was low. This effect was found to be specific to judgments of opposite-sex faces. The strength of men’s reported attraction to femininity in men’s faces did not differ between high and low testosterone test sessions, suggesting that the effect of testosterone that we observed for judgments of women’s faces was not due to a general response bias. Collectively, these findings suggest that changes in testosterone levels contribute to the strength of men’s reported attraction to femininity in women’s faces and complement previous findings showing that testosterone modulates men’s interest in sexual stimuli.

Study 4

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886906004995

Beauty is in the eye of the plastic surgeon: Waist–hip ratio (WHR) and women’s attractiveness

Attractiveness conveys reliable information about a woman’s age, health, and fertility. Body fat distribution, as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), is a reliable cue to a woman’s age, health, and fertility, and affects judgment of women’s attractiveness. WHR is positively correlated with overall body weight or body mass index (BMI). Some researchers have argued that BMI, rather than WHR, affects judgments of female attractiveness. To evaluate the role of WHR, independent of BMI, we secured photographs of pre- and post-operative women who have undergone micro-fat grafting surgery. In this surgery, surgeons harvest fat tissue from the waist region and implant it on the buttocks. Post-operatively, all women have a lower WHR but some gain weight whereas others lose body weight. Results indicate that participants judge post-operative photographs as more attractive than pre-operative photographs, independent of post-operative changes in body weight or BMI. These results indicate that WHR is a key feature of women’s attractiveness.

Duh.

Let’s look historically. Study 5

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/72/6/1436/4729453

Trends in waist-to-hip ratio and its determinants in adults in Finland from 1987 to 1997

Background: Although abdominal obesity has been shown to be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a variety of other diseases, secular changes in fat distribution in populations have rarely been documented.

Objective: Our objective was to assess trends in waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in the Finnish population during a 10-y period. In addition, we investigated the associations of WHR with body mass index (BMI), age, education, and lifestyle factors.

Design: Three independent cross-sectional surveys were carried out at 5-y intervals between 1987 and 1997. Altogether, 15096 randomly selected men and women aged 25–64 y participated in these surveys.

Results: The WHR increased in both men and women during the 10-y period (P< 0.0001). In men, the strongest upward trend took place in the first 5-y period and then seemed to plateau; in women, the WHR continued to increase into the 1990s. In both sexes, the most prominent increase was observed in subjects aged ≥45 y. The WHR increased in all education-level groups, the lowest WHR being among those with the highest education. Age (18% in men, 12% in women) and BMI (33% in men, 25% in women) accounted for most of the variation in WHR, whereas only 3% was explained by education and lifestyle factors.

Conclusions: Abdominal obesity is a growing problem in Finland, especially in persons aged ≥45 y. These adverse changes in body shape continued to take place, particularly in women, in the 1990s.

Something in the food?

More history, prehistoric. Study 6

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0123284

Preferred Women’s Waist-to-Hip Ratio Variation over the Last 2,500 Years

The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men’s mate preferences. Because a woman’s WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men’s preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men’s preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed.

Should’ve controlled for race.

Why not look at male WHR? Plus sperm health? Found:

https://www.drelist.com/blog/bmi-waist-circumference-semen-quality/

  • The volume of ejaculate decreases in a linear fashion with increasing BMI (suggesting an inverse relationship).
  • The sperm quality and viability declines with increasing waist circumference.
  • Investigators also discovered that quality of semen decreases (such as sperm viability, motility, semen volume) with increasing body size; however, no relationship was observed between sperm DNA fragmentation index and physical activity or obesity.

Latter requires time.

Various research and clinical studies suggests that subfertility in men is multifactorial i.e. several factors can impact the quality of reproductive health.

  • Abnormal sperm production: Study conducted by Jensen and associates (2) suggested that abnormal BMI is very strongly linked to impaired sperm production. One of the many reasons is, abnormal metabolism of testosterone (which plays a key role in the production of healthy and viable sperms).
  • Abdominal obesity and risk of metabolic disorders: According to a new study reported in the Human Reproduction (3), investigators provided statistical evidence that abnormal BMI and abdominal obesity is very strongly linked to a number of health issues (such as cardiovascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others). Needless to say that these health issues have a deleterious effect on the sexual health regardless of the body-mass index (or BMI).
  • Obesity, physical activity and testosterone: Testosterone levels tends to decline in males who have a sedentary lifestyle. Various research and clinical studies indicates that aerobic activity or exercise can improve testosterone metabolism in males significantly.

1. Eisenberg, M. L., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Sundaram, R., Schisterman, E. F., & Louis, G. M. B. (2014). The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study. Human Reproduction, 29(2), 193-200.

2. Jensen, T. K., Andersson, A. M., Jørgensen, N., Andersen, A. G., Carlsen, E., & Skakkebæk, N. E. (2004). Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,558 Danish men. Fertility and sterility, 82(4), 863-870.

3. Hammiche, F., Laven, J. S., Twigt, J. M., Boellaard, W. P., Steegers, E. A., & Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. (2012). Body mass index and central adiposity are associated with sperm quality in men of subfertile couples. Human reproduction, 27(8), 2365-2372.

Yet they don’t tell men this information.

Back to women

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24789138

Cross-cultural variation in men’s preference for sexual dimorphism in women’s faces.

Both attractiveness judgements and mate preferences vary considerably cross-culturally.

Racially.

We investigated whether men’s preference for femininity in women’s faces varies between 28 countries with diverse health conditions by analysing responses of 1972 heterosexual participants. Although men in all countries preferred feminized over masculinized female faces, we found substantial differences between countries in the magnitude of men’s preferences. Using an average femininity preference for each country, we found men’s facial femininity preferences correlated positively with the health of the nation, which explained 50.4% of the variation among countries. The weakest preferences for femininity were found in Nepal and strongest in Japan. As high femininity in women is associated with lower success in competition for resources and lower dominance, it is possible that in harsher environments, men prefer cues to resource holding potential over high fecundity.

Asia is weird for dimorphism studies.

Hence the focus on health.

While the economy is bad, it isn’t surprising men prefer manly looking women.

It’s temporary. There’ll be a flood of divorces as the economy improves. Men will suddenly see how mannish the wife has been and be repulsed. Menopause also makes women look more mannish, including higher WHR. So much for a youth argument there.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5177465/pdf/nihms827194.pdf

Factors Underlying the Temporal Increase in Maternal Mortality in the United States

They don’t say more non-white mothers or more mixed race babies, so it’s wrong. They guess.