Waist-Hip Ratio and female beauty

The sexual dimorphism for this metric is obviously lowest on Asians.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8366421

Evidence is presented showing that body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is correlated with youthfulness, reproductive endocrinologic status, and long-term health risk in women. Three studies show that men judge women with low WHR as attractive. Study 1 documents that minor changes in WHRs of Miss America winners and Playboy playmates have occurred over the past 30-60 years. Study 2 shows that college-age men find female figures with low WHR more attractive, healthier, and of greater reproductive value than figures with a higher WHR. In Study 3, 25- to 85-year-old men were found to prefer female figures with lower WHR and assign them higher ratings of attractiveness and reproductive potential. It is suggested that WHR represents an important bodily feature associated with physical attractiveness as well as with health and reproductive potential. A hypothesis is proposed to explain how WHR influences female attractiveness and its role in mate selection.

Hello sexual selection, tied intimately to natural selection.

PDF here: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/05d6/0e201efb208e8561641d13df30fc6ba3bc1a.pdf

also connected to “desire and capability for having childrenp7 or 299.

so K-type women may have better WHR.

Normal weight women have the most positive attributes associated.

Overweight category was universally unattractive.
It’d be nice to see a male study on this. I think Western women would want more children if fewer men were obese.

Why Asians are considered youthful but not sexy (they’d usually fall in the underweight group):

The variables of attractiveness, sexiness, and good health were located close to each other, suggesting that subjects perceived them to be closely related.

Attributes of desire and capability for having children were located close to each other in the solution space but farther from attractiveness, sexiness, and good health, implying that subjects did not perceive a great similarity between these two sets of attributes.

Finally, the attribute of youthfulness was located alone and away from both sets of other attributes. Thus, subjects apparently did not perceive youthfulness to be related to any other measured attributes of good health, sexiness, attractiveness, and desire and capability for having children.

So there’s that. Nobody’s jealous.

Figure N7 was located closer to attractiveness, sexiness, and good health as well as desire and capability for having children than any other Figure.

Normal weight for frame (and race) + most nubile WHR would make sense.
More of those genes survived.

Figure N9 was located closest to desire and capability for having children, whereas Figure N8 was located between Figure N7 and Figure N9. The figure N10 was grouped along with overweight figures, which were not perceived to be closely associated with any of the attributes under investigation. Underweight female figures, U7 and U8, were associated only with youthfulness. However, underweight figures with high WHR (U9 and U10) were perceived as neither youthful nor healthy, in spite of the fact that their depicted body weight was quite similar to figures with lower WHR.

Women with an atrocious WHR (boy hips, no waist) and under or overweight for their skeleton are objectively unattractive from an evolutionary standpoint. This would apply whether it’s a Jap, a Ruskie or an American.

Stop calling sexy science ‘racist’ because it doesn’t share your fetish.

This chart drags you harder than I ever could.

Your Asian girlfriend with the boy hips is approximately as attractive to the world as the average WHR white fat chick. That’s your level, accept it.

It’s also a fact we cannot accurately perceive attractiveness of the racial outgroup as well as our own, so an awareness of ingroup flaws changes nothing.

Most modern women straight up don’t look healthy, whether they’re American, European or, yes, Asian.

Stop trying to make boy hips = sexy happen. It’s not going to happen.

Look at the damn gradient on that underweight thing. The solution to fat women isn’t anorexia. That also suggests bad genes. In fact, at least the fat percentage on slightly overweight 0.7 WHR women suggests femininity and fertility.

“Overall, it seems that subjects inferred reproductive capability from body fat”

What does a foetus feed from?

“Thus, it seems that although WHR is related to health and attractiveness, body weight is perceived to be related to reproductive capability”

Obviously.

“As a group, underweight figures were assigned the lowest reproductive capability, followed by overweight figures and then normal weight figures.”

Suck on that, soyboys.

You actually tend to downgrade. That’s why the Democrat-voting soyboys all want an Asian girlfriend and expressly don’t want kids with it.

“Overall, it appears that both fatness and thinness are perceived as unattractive, and such figures are not perceived as having especially high reproductive potential. “

Not womanly. Remember that word? This:

Not girly, not sexy, not cute, not hot. Womanly.

You can’t discuss women in a reproductive, evolutionary context without it.

Thus, consistent with the present findings, men did not find thin or underweight figures attractive.

If you only care for other male opinions.

There is some evidence that suggests that being extremely underweight or overweight can have adverse effects on female reproductive functions.

Ya don’t say?

A critical body mass has been shown to be significantly related to the onset of menstrual cycle and its maintenance (Frisch & McCarthur, 1974), although recent evidence (DeRidder et al., 1990) suggests that it is the body fat distribution, rather than body fat mass or body weight, that is related to early pubertal development.

Distribution varies by race.

Africans are the most pronounced in women then Europeans shapely but delicate then Asians last – no shape, very yang flesh (broad but flat or full in the middle like cortisol fat) and almost nothing to distribute.

Am I imagining all of this?

Underweight females (15% below ideal body weight) have been reported to have a higher incidence of oligomenorrhea (menses 35 days or more apart) and amenorrhea and to have a higher prevalence of ovu-latory infertility than normal weight females (Green, Weiss, & Daling, 1986).

Underweight women also give birth to infants who are small and growth delayed, and such infants often have permanently impaired intellectual and physical development (Supy, Steer, McCusker, Steele, & Jacobs, 1988).

Menstrual dysfunction and ovulatory infertility also occur more often in females who are 20% above ideal body weight (Green et al., 1986). Morbid obesity in females with high WHR has been shown to increase the degree of androgenicity (increased percentage of free testosterone) and associated menstrual and ovulatory problems (Kirschner & Samojilik, 1991). Thus, the reproductive success of a woman may be low in spite of a high level of fat deposits if the regional distribution of fat is not appropriate, that is, gynoid.

=Womanly.

Finally, the finding that underweight figures were assigned high rankings for youthfulness but not for attractiveness (or other attributes related to reproductive potential) is difficult to reconcile with some evolutionarily based mate selection hypotheses.

Normal men aren’t pedos.

Youthfulness and health have been proprosed as absolute criteria for female attractiveness (Symons, 1987).

Stick with health.

Health has good or bad, you have no negative way to assess youth e.g. immature.

Features of physical appearance associated with youth supposedly provide the strongest and most reliable cues for female reproductive potential. The present finding illustrates that the relationship of youthfulness and attractiveness is quite complex.

Not really.

A woman who is judged to be attractive is also found to be youthful; however, youthfulness alone does not make a woman attractive. Apparently, youthfulness is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition, for determination of female physical attractiveness.

crazed pointing-

also, don’t try to chalk this up to taste:

“Furthermore, if the ideal of female attractiveness is arbitrary and ever changing, no evidence of transgenerational stability in the meaning of WHR should be found, as older men are more likely to be exposed to different ideals of attractiveness than are younger men.”

but

“Older men did not associate health with underweight figures, including those with lower WHR.”

TLDR: Pedos are wrong. Underweight, waistless wonders are not attractive.

Study 2, rubbing salt in that fact.

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0009042

Optimal Waist-to-Hip Ratios in Women Activate Neural Reward Centers in Men

Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of “good genes” in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (∼0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes.

These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men’s neurological processing.

Quality.

Study 3

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0018506X08002298

Men report stronger attraction to femininity in women’s faces when their testosterone levels are high

Many studies have shown that women’s judgments of men’s attractiveness are affected by changes in levels of sex hormones. However, no studies have tested for associations between changes in levels of sex hormones and men’s judgments of women’s attractiveness. To investigate this issue, we compared men’s attractiveness judgments of feminized and masculinized women’s and men’s faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high and test sessions where salivary testosterone was relatively low.

This is why we need studies on men too.

Men reported stronger attraction to femininity in women’s faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high than in test sessions where salivary testosterone was low. This effect was found to be specific to judgments of opposite-sex faces. The strength of men’s reported attraction to femininity in men’s faces did not differ between high and low testosterone test sessions, suggesting that the effect of testosterone that we observed for judgments of women’s faces was not due to a general response bias. Collectively, these findings suggest that changes in testosterone levels contribute to the strength of men’s reported attraction to femininity in women’s faces and complement previous findings showing that testosterone modulates men’s interest in sexual stimuli.

Study 4

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886906004995

Beauty is in the eye of the plastic surgeon: Waist–hip ratio (WHR) and women’s attractiveness

Attractiveness conveys reliable information about a woman’s age, health, and fertility. Body fat distribution, as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), is a reliable cue to a woman’s age, health, and fertility, and affects judgment of women’s attractiveness. WHR is positively correlated with overall body weight or body mass index (BMI). Some researchers have argued that BMI, rather than WHR, affects judgments of female attractiveness. To evaluate the role of WHR, independent of BMI, we secured photographs of pre- and post-operative women who have undergone micro-fat grafting surgery. In this surgery, surgeons harvest fat tissue from the waist region and implant it on the buttocks. Post-operatively, all women have a lower WHR but some gain weight whereas others lose body weight. Results indicate that participants judge post-operative photographs as more attractive than pre-operative photographs, independent of post-operative changes in body weight or BMI. These results indicate that WHR is a key feature of women’s attractiveness.

Duh.

Let’s look historically. Study 5

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/72/6/1436/4729453

Trends in waist-to-hip ratio and its determinants in adults in Finland from 1987 to 1997

Background: Although abdominal obesity has been shown to be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a variety of other diseases, secular changes in fat distribution in populations have rarely been documented.

Objective: Our objective was to assess trends in waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in the Finnish population during a 10-y period. In addition, we investigated the associations of WHR with body mass index (BMI), age, education, and lifestyle factors.

Design: Three independent cross-sectional surveys were carried out at 5-y intervals between 1987 and 1997. Altogether, 15096 randomly selected men and women aged 25–64 y participated in these surveys.

Results: The WHR increased in both men and women during the 10-y period (P< 0.0001). In men, the strongest upward trend took place in the first 5-y period and then seemed to plateau; in women, the WHR continued to increase into the 1990s. In both sexes, the most prominent increase was observed in subjects aged ≥45 y. The WHR increased in all education-level groups, the lowest WHR being among those with the highest education. Age (18% in men, 12% in women) and BMI (33% in men, 25% in women) accounted for most of the variation in WHR, whereas only 3% was explained by education and lifestyle factors.

Conclusions: Abdominal obesity is a growing problem in Finland, especially in persons aged ≥45 y. These adverse changes in body shape continued to take place, particularly in women, in the 1990s.

Something in the food?

More history, prehistoric. Study 6

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0123284

Preferred Women’s Waist-to-Hip Ratio Variation over the Last 2,500 Years

The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men’s mate preferences. Because a woman’s WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men’s preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men’s preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed.

Should’ve controlled for race.

Why not look at male WHR? Plus sperm health? Found:

https://www.drelist.com/blog/bmi-waist-circumference-semen-quality/

  • The volume of ejaculate decreases in a linear fashion with increasing BMI (suggesting an inverse relationship).
  • The sperm quality and viability declines with increasing waist circumference.
  • Investigators also discovered that quality of semen decreases (such as sperm viability, motility, semen volume) with increasing body size; however, no relationship was observed between sperm DNA fragmentation index and physical activity or obesity.

Latter requires time.

Various research and clinical studies suggests that subfertility in men is multifactorial i.e. several factors can impact the quality of reproductive health.

  • Abnormal sperm production: Study conducted by Jensen and associates (2) suggested that abnormal BMI is very strongly linked to impaired sperm production. One of the many reasons is, abnormal metabolism of testosterone (which plays a key role in the production of healthy and viable sperms).
  • Abdominal obesity and risk of metabolic disorders: According to a new study reported in the Human Reproduction (3), investigators provided statistical evidence that abnormal BMI and abdominal obesity is very strongly linked to a number of health issues (such as cardiovascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others). Needless to say that these health issues have a deleterious effect on the sexual health regardless of the body-mass index (or BMI).
  • Obesity, physical activity and testosterone: Testosterone levels tends to decline in males who have a sedentary lifestyle. Various research and clinical studies indicates that aerobic activity or exercise can improve testosterone metabolism in males significantly.

1. Eisenberg, M. L., Kim, S., Chen, Z., Sundaram, R., Schisterman, E. F., & Louis, G. M. B. (2014). The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study. Human Reproduction, 29(2), 193-200.

2. Jensen, T. K., Andersson, A. M., Jørgensen, N., Andersen, A. G., Carlsen, E., & Skakkebæk, N. E. (2004). Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,558 Danish men. Fertility and sterility, 82(4), 863-870.

3. Hammiche, F., Laven, J. S., Twigt, J. M., Boellaard, W. P., Steegers, E. A., & Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. (2012). Body mass index and central adiposity are associated with sperm quality in men of subfertile couples. Human reproduction, 27(8), 2365-2372.

Yet they don’t tell men this information.

Back to women

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24789138

Cross-cultural variation in men’s preference for sexual dimorphism in women’s faces.

Both attractiveness judgements and mate preferences vary considerably cross-culturally.

Racially.

We investigated whether men’s preference for femininity in women’s faces varies between 28 countries with diverse health conditions by analysing responses of 1972 heterosexual participants. Although men in all countries preferred feminized over masculinized female faces, we found substantial differences between countries in the magnitude of men’s preferences. Using an average femininity preference for each country, we found men’s facial femininity preferences correlated positively with the health of the nation, which explained 50.4% of the variation among countries. The weakest preferences for femininity were found in Nepal and strongest in Japan. As high femininity in women is associated with lower success in competition for resources and lower dominance, it is possible that in harsher environments, men prefer cues to resource holding potential over high fecundity.

Asia is weird for dimorphism studies.

Hence the focus on health.

While the economy is bad, it isn’t surprising men prefer manly looking women.

It’s temporary. There’ll be a flood of divorces as the economy improves. Men will suddenly see how mannish the wife has been and be repulsed. Menopause also makes women look more mannish, including higher WHR. So much for a youth argument there.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5177465/pdf/nihms827194.pdf

Factors Underlying the Temporal Increase in Maternal Mortality in the United States

They don’t say more non-white mothers or more mixed race babies, so it’s wrong. They guess.

The invention of yoga and British colonialism

newyorker.com/business/currency/iyengar-invention-yoga

“In contemporary yoga classes, teachers often speak of Patanjali’s “Yoga Sutras,” a philosophical text compiled around two thousand years ago, as the wellspring of the practice. This requires an imaginative leap, because the yoga sutras say next to nothing about physical poses; their overriding concern is the workings of the mind. Yoga, the sutras say, “is the restriction of the fluctuations of consciousness.” The total of their guidance about posture is that it should be “steady and comfortable.”
Instructions for postures, or asanas, appeared much later, in medieval tantra-inflected texts, such as the “Hatha Yoga Pradipika.” Even in those works, however, you won’t find many of the positions taught today as yoga. Fifteen poses appear in the “Hatha Yoga Pradipika,” most of them seated or supine.”

For sex. I want to make that part crystal-clear. It was a sex book.

uhuh hmm o really rlly doubt eyebrow flash lara croft

Not exercises one would teach to children. Orgasm control is fundamental.

Normal people call that mind work ‘meditation’ and the Lotus position was popularized by statues of Buddha with his symbolic flower, created by the alignment and opening of all chakras; those people are vivacious and fiery. Note: Buddhism is not a religion, because there is no God to worship. Yoga gave Boomer hippies a way to rebel with their parent’s exercise regime by giving it new clothes (always a red flag), a xenophilic mystique and a new brand name.

The system that Krishnamacharya created there drew on hatha yoga, as well as traditional Indian wrestling and gymnastics, British Army calisthenics and, according to the scholar Mark Singleton, the Danish educator Niels Bukh’s “primitive gymnastics.”

Have you seen most yoga people? They could hardly catch a fish. They are such wastrels they look anorexic, this isn’t healthy. It’s mostly glorified stretching, a build-up to exercise, some core work and a lot of futile cardio (and BREEEEEEEEEEEEATHE).

Literally, sitting in a salt bath or sauna is better for you than pointless cardio.

Men usually practice with one aim: self-fellation.
Women – the ability to put their legs behind their head (unlikely if your hips have closed or fused or otherwise fully matured).

The parts of yoga that work are based on pilates, a form of formal physiotherapy in use to this day and trialed on war veterans. The rest is ripped off tai chi for flow of posture and a retinue of nature-based poses e.g. monkey king. Go ahead, give the Indians credit for the Chinese discipline with a true thousands-year history. Don’t whine to me about cultural appropriation. ‘Hot’ yoga works better because it lubricates the joints and organs, including the skin. All exercise is about flexibility, that isn’t a distinctive trait.

You know the one hallmark of a great workout?

You feel like Death afterwards. 

If you feel better, you’re simply out of shape and tuning up to the common level minus caffeine, alcohol and drug dependency. Not to mention pollution, dehydration, poor diet, lack of sleep………

Actual yoga is just a warm-up. It’s the thing you do before exercise. Everyone feels refreshed after a warm-up. You don’t just stop, it’s so lazy. If you offer to take them to a real workout, they sneer and make excuses, fooling nobody. It isn’t a military drill, you aren’t being tested out for the Marines here, it’s basic equipment and exercise.

There’s no magic exercise routine, it’s supposed to deplete and exhaust your body aka the purpose of having a body, possibly increasing capacity. Desperate people cling to desperate forms of validation.

They have terrible pain endurance as well, after bragging how ‘hard’ and ‘painful’ yoga supposedly is (sunk cost fallacy). Naturally, bad postures will be painful, because the body isn’t supposed to twist itself into a pretzel and it’s unnatural (notice old people who do it still have worsening joints? it makes their pain worse). Anything objective like that and suddenly they do their best psychic impression: The benefits are immeasurable. – liars

How sad must you be as an adult, to care about being cool?

Sexual dimorphism and perception (curvology)

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/thinking-man/11379482/Why-men-cant-see-their-girlfriends-imperfections.html

Some of this is true, other parts not.

WHR curvy female figure
Above: curvy AND skinny. It’s skeletal.
Example: Yes a man notices your flaws, but he is grateful to be having sex with you and knows never to insult your appearance in case it shuts down that willingness.

It’s long been accepted that men have evolved to appreciate proportion, rather than size. What this means in practical terms is that if a woman’s size fluctuates but shape remains the same, her partner is unlikely to notice, not because he is unobservant, but just because his brain is programmed to be more concerned with hip/waist ratio than stones and pounds.

This is true. However, most heavy women are less Christina Hendricks and more like the proportions of a masculine beer barrel. They’d still prefer a thin Christina, same WHR, to an average or fat woman with ‘curves’, she happens to hold the weight well.

In order to deal with this somewhat unusual situation (other mammals are guaranteed a shag, no matter what they look like, because they don’t have monogamy), women have established a physicalised hierarchy. The components of this hierarchy are often invisible to men, but it isn’t about them, it’s about women knowing where they fit in a pecking order.

Yes, women must destroy the competition. Never take a strange woman’s appearance-based advice if she has something to gain from it.

Of course, I don’t want to believe any of this is true. I hate to think of womankind in this way. And yet I cannot deny that it makes total sense. When I talk to David about it (and it’s a conversation that involves quite a lot of me asking him why he seems so unfazed by the inevitable backlash by ‘Twitter Feminists’ and him reassuring me that it’s just social media and everything will be fine) he tells me that women being honest about this sort of thing might actually be the key to social progress.

“Men have been forced to analyse how we interact with and treat women in professional and social environments and that was a good thing. It’s time for women to be honest about how they’re treating each other”. He says.

Most of the shit women do is for the benefit of other women

Physical response to fat varies by sex

obvious study is obvious

Summary;

Researchers have found that male and female brains respond in remarkably different ways to high-fat meals. Those differences in the brain lead to greater inflammation and increased health risks in males that indulge on fatty foods in comparison to females, a new study in mice shows. The findings may help to explain observed differences in obesity outcomes between women and men and suggest that dietary advice should be made more sex-specific.

Pregnancy. A woman needs to deposit vitamins and minerals in her fat reserves (higher body-fat % than men) for a successful pregnancy.

Aside: Paleo guys, you’ve got it right. Your diet is low poly-fat because men are better hunters and women are grazers (e.g. high fat nuts and dairy).  We evolved accordingly.

 

Breasts are beautiful

This post is a pure celebration of breasts primarily in art, with some random opinions hither and thither.
There are many breasts.

XIR38609Portrait of a Woman revealing her breasts by Jacobo Robusti

 A breast is often a synonym for woman’s power of creation. It’s a common motif in art (yes, this is another art post, with a twist).

 fornarina raphael
Detail, Fornarina by Raphael

You could say a nipple twist.


Typical example of a 17th century theatre costume

The connection with sex has been ushered in by modern times and began as a reaction by Victorian modesty values.

marie dress 18thc
Marie-Thérèse Louise de Savoie-Carignan, Princess of Lamballe by Joseph-Siffrein Duplessi

The 18th century had low cuts and was renowned as a time of debauchery where orgies were quite commonplace on the heels of publications like This Misterie of Fucking from the late 17th and sexual self-improvement L’Ecole des Filles. Erotica was invented (I recommended Fanny Hill to begin with) and a flourishing market for erotic materials such as carved stone dildos (green jade from the Orient was a popular choice and remain so) and these were mechanized in the 19th century (here’s one operated by hand crank) in a way the steampunks would lose their mind over if they knew. Expanding shipping routes broadened horizons on that front.

mary_robinson_as_perdita_by_john_hoppner_1758_1810Mary Robinson as Perdita by John Hoppner

The neckerchief (gathered, ruched fabric seen above) arose to partially veil the frequent pop-outs caused by the tight-laced corsets demanded by the time when following the fashionable bustline. Courtesans and other prostitutes were the celebrities of the time (has anything changed). With this constraint of voyeurism from a former era, it led to the Victorian emphasis on the arse and the emergence of the bustle.

A bared breast in the 19th century was tied to Pagan values because pagans tend to go skyclad (naked). However, in the 18th century it was associated with chastity in art. The innocence of baring, as a child and height, as youth. Women would rouge their nipples. Here’s a recipe. The pale pink or as we call it now when naming a fabric, the blush of youth. Women still buy blusher… (I think it’s aging, since the nipples darken after childbirth).

06705-jean-droit-1932-a-la-hussarde-18th-century-costumes-hprints-com
A la hussarde by John Droit 1932

In religious portrayals, it took from the Catholic Church’s change of heart on the Madonna. She became a key figure and some Orthodox families are still headed and defined by their Matriarch for this reason.

danae
Typical chamber painting: Danaë
by Antonio da Correggio

They found Renaissance “chamber paintings” kept in bedrooms or sometimes a wardrobe behind clothes to keep from the wife and associated topless females with masturbation, the reason they were commissioned.


Sleeping Venus by Giorgione

These examples of former chamber art became quite famous and emulated until the establishment barred them from public show by refusing to purchase under (im)morality laws.

Olympia by Manet

The Victorians weren’t fans of the practice of masturbation these vanities encouraged and the public, common men were now allowed to see them for a small fee under arts exhibitions headed by Queen Victoria. Equality: miners and barons allowed to ogle at the same pair of tits.
Art was a moral battleground and the Academy deemed these messages unacceptable (politically incorrect). The portrayal of nude females was confined mostly to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood outcasts, who hated them anyway, with a mind to portray women as both pagan (creative, fiery muses of men) and chaste, innocent (associated to their sex in a positive Christian way for the time). Potentially, they included so many nudes to piss off the Academy. Trolling par excellence. The combined interpretations taken up explains….

Lilith by Collier

The sex appeal was acknowledged to the viewer, as the choice to remain chaste.

                                           Serena, Found of Savages by Kennington

Can’t you see how sexual those women are? One is even holding a HORN.

the pearl
The Pearl by William-Adolphe Bougeureau

Virgins were sexy. There were urban legends about them which remain to this day, on par with unicorns. UNICORNS. (Modern beautiful virgins are like bloody unicorns). Virgins are still sexy (to men, whose opinion is The Word on sexual allure of normal women). It guaranteed paternity and makes a marriage almost divorce-proof (statistics and charts).


The Goddess Diana with a Lion by Angelo Von Courten

Women were powerful, and sex wasn’t a factor in it at all. In fact, sex diminished these women’s power. Promiscuous women were fallen and lost (kind view) or evil temptresses (femme fetale view kept today), who enticed men by plying their illegal trade as prostitutes by what they wore and the male spaces they chose to frequent (taverns, bars).

Picture is unrelated. It made me laugh.

A single woman in a bar? Pros. This is where we get the negative connotation of single.

The typical reaction. And they talk about Slut Shaming now.

Typical advertising, breaking the taboo on Victorian necklines. 1890. To this day, a woman with her top open is said to be asking for a come-on.

I wonder where she desires us to look. 1904 postcard. Wish you were here!

Hardcore Pornography of the day. Even whores had limits.

I call this phenomena The Tumbling Breast.

Just the breasts are depicted on partial display.


If you’re thinking “that sounds very feminist”, you are correct. This is the line the original feminists used to gain power, that female power was NOT rooted in sex and sexuality whatsoever! And lending women say, The Vote, wouldn’t lead to such immorality because women were the superior, purer, fairer sex acknowledged by the Classical Ancients (who the Victorians emulated in NeoClassicism).
It is Modern ‘Feminism’ which sexualizes and objectifies women because it is profitable; they charge for contraceptives, abortion and fertility treatments when it’s too late. ‘Sex-positive’ feminists are funded by companies. There is no profit in chastity. A few minor feminists have caught on, and coined the term Virgin Shaming. It hasn’t taken off because most feminists are deceptive. Feminist women in the 1960s began it wholesale to pass off the guilt they felt in the Sexual Revolution, from The Pill invented by men, onto other women who were competition for husbands later on (if everyone does it, men can’t preferentially choose the type of woman I can never be again, same with STDs at present, commented as positive to “get over with” again again and again although sluts in college are uncommon and it’s natural for a woman to be ashamed of her promiscuity, that’s why they downgrade, distort or try to redefine it as if the hymen doesn’t exist) and men caught on, who use it to this day to pressure a girl into why she should sleep with him because she needs to ‘lose it’ or be a loser (yep, that includes rape). Thanks, feminism!

As for the public argument of double standards on breast baring…
A few men rebelled and began walking around topless because miners who did real jobs needed that time to cool off and everyone said “fair enough” and soon male nipples were acceptable and remain thus. However, this doesn’t work for women because they’re erotogenic and connected to vaginal or clitoral nerve stimulation in the brain.

Class dismissed, thank you for not masturbating until you finished here first.