Problems with “Gladiator diet” rhetoric

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4198250/

  1. they were slaves, restricted diet
  2. they were poor, no choice in diet
  3. they were often diseased, multiple
  4. they’re studying the ones bad at the job, enough to die
  5. there’s no such thing as one gladiator, they weren’t even mostly male.

Gladiators in practice wanted to put on a little fat at least to protect the major organs from spears and knives. Do not carry modern Ho-wood assumptions to the ancient world.

The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed.

aka most of those tested were NOT gladiators

yet included?

All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

Are you telling me they sucked down on almond butter? Legumes, really?

Beverages are not food.

And it might’ve been to stave off infection (use for ash).

Due to the preferred uptake of Ca compared to Sr and the resulting “biopurification” of Ca in the food chain, it was long believed that Sr functions as a dietary plant-to-meat ratio indicator . It was assumed that a high Sr amount in the bone reflected a high vegetarian intake, and a low Sr amount indicated a diet rich in meat. Therefore, studies of Sr/Ca-ratios for the reconstruction of diet were introduced in 1965 for extinct animals and in the 1970s and early 1980s for prehistoric humans . Since then, numerous studies have dealt with this subject. Thus, we refer to detailed review articles(e. g. by , and ). Two major issues with this concept of diet reconstruction have to be highlighted:

Assumed?

First, the dietary plant-to-meat ratio approach experienced a major correction by Burton and Wright . They showed that Sr/Ca ratios in bone reflect the Sr/Ca ratio of the strongest Ca supplier rather than the whole plant-to-meat ratio of a multicomponent diet. This limits future Sr/Ca studies to identifying the major Ca source of the diet.

A second major drawback for the investigation of trace elements arose from the fact that bones buried in soil undergo diagenetic alterations . Many attempts were made to identify and quantify diagenetic changes to Sr/Ca-ratio with the target to reconstruct original Sr/Ca-ratios (summarized in ). Because of the complexity and variability of soil processes, this seems impossible up to now. Therefore, the scientific focus has shifted from trace elements to stable isotopes for diet reconstruction in recent years. Only few combined studies on trace elements and stable isotopes are available. Though we believe that trace element and stable isotope investigations complement each other and have the potential to draw a more comprehensive picture of ancient diets.

it gets worse

run while you still can

The bone sample preparation followed a protocol developed for spectroscopic trace element analysis in bone or teeth . First, the bones were superficially cleaned with tap water and dried at room temperature.

Archaeologists are idiots with spades, exhibit A.

TAP WATER.

ELEMENT ANALYSIS CLEANING.

THEY USE FUCKING TAP WATER.

on ancient samples, my stars

leave it out on the counter near students, it’ll be fiiiiiine

All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food.

i.e. Not fucking kale.

Pliny the Elder reported in his Naturalis historia that barley (hordearii), a C3 plant, was a main component of the gladiators nutrition which matches our findings . However, most NG individuals apparently also had C3 plants as a staple food since no statistical difference is detectable.

apparently? no ‘statistical’ difference? detectable?

whose job dis?

Me marking papers, the flashbacks.

A few individuals show more positive δ13C values. The most probable cause for this is an increased consumption of C4 plants such as millet.

probable how

no

how about no

keep filling in those gaps with BS, I’ll wait

Millet was an important nutrition crop in Eurasia and its consumption has already been verified in several ancient societies by stable isotope investigations , especially since the Middle Bronze Age in Italy  published similar δ13C data for imperial Rome Isola Sacra (−18.8‰ versus −18.9‰ here). They mention ancient literature in which millet is described as an animal food and as less desirable for human consumption under “normal” circumstances.

So animal feed. Not suggested for modern humans. K.

In their study, the δ13C values of the faunal remains are more negative than those of the humans, so it was assumed that the terrestrial herbivores basically fed on C3 plants. Although animal bones have not been investigated yet for reference in our study, we agree with .

wut

Cunts with spades, I swear.

Yeah just throw some tap water on it then wonder about the calcium. It’s fine!

If the δ13C values were caused by the consumption of millet-fed animals, then higher δ15N values would be expected for the Ephesus population.

If. I read a scientific analysis of elements for a fucking IF.

It’s like grading a philosophy paper. IF.

If I were Batman.

One of the individuals with a rather strong signal for C4 plants, a δ13C value of −17.8, belongs to the gladiator group (EPH-DAM 187/93 rFEM 6) (Fig. 3).

One person?

One?

Freud had larger sample sizes!

Another gladiator (EPH-DAM 248/93 rFEM 6) and one female (EPH-DAM 72/93 rFEM-1) show at least hints for a mixed signal of C3 and C4 plants.

Kill me now.

show – ok

at least – numbers?

hints – no

Fuck off and die. NO.

mixed signal – a pox on your family line

This individual is also extraordinary as she was the only female to be found in the gladiator cemetery.

No.

This leads to two hypotheses: 1) these individuals had a different diet than the others

no shit Sherlock

or 2) they came from other geographical regions with a more C4 plant-based diet and migrated to Ephesus.

and died before leaving, let’s tell everyone to eat like slaves who died young!

The second one is more probable because the extensive cultivation of millet is only evidenced since the Early Byzantine Period, ca. AD450, for this region . Comparable δ13C data from Roman North Africa (Tunisia) with a mean of −17.7‰ were published by . However, their combined δ13C and δ15N values suggest a significant amount of dietary protein intake from marine resources.

You slipped that one in there, didn’t you?

Last sentence of section. Thought I wouldn’t notice, but I did.

An ancient cookbook written by Apicius which contains a collection of Roman recipes, suggests that seafood was probably consumed in Ephesus. Fish was most likely eaten as fish sauce (garum), but also cooked and salted.

Yeah another thing Whites invented.

 In contrast to this, the two individuals with the highest values are from the gladiator group, too (EPH-DAM 146/93 rFEM 1 and EPH-DAM 76/93 rFEM 2). That indicates a regular consumption of animal proteins and a lower intake of legumes. Within the gladiator group, the isotope data extend over more than one trophic level for δ15N but also for δ13C. This leads to the conclusion that the individuals from the gladiator cemetery were a very heterogeneous group who consumed different kind of foods.

Too pissed, you read the rest.

The meat values simply don’t show up because their methodological test is biased to conceal it with legume intake.

Fake burger, real trans fats

Big Food has a lot to answer for.

DECODING LABELS: Beyond Meat Chicken

Higher consumption of unsaturated fats linked with lower mortality

Mmmmmm, bleeding vegetable oils.

Trans fats—on their way to being largely phased out of food—had the most significant adverse impact on health. Every 2% higher intake of trans fat was associated with a 16% higher chance of premature death during the study period.

That’s a big deal.

Eightfold.

And cumulative.

Higher consumption of saturated fats was also linked with greater mortality risk. When compared with the same number of calories from carbohydrate, every 5% increase in saturated fat intake was associated with an 8% higher risk of overall mortality.

That’s practically insignificant proportionally, especially since the method painstakingly avoid citing animal source or non-animal sourced fats. Too vague.

Conversely, intake of high amounts of unsaturated fats—both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated—was associated with between 11% and 19% lower overall mortality compared with the same number of calories from carbohydrates.

You cannot compare to sick Americans as your control population. No.

Bad scientism.

They don’t want people learning how to be really healthy. It would show up on their data more. You need half a century of plant propaganda to convince people our declining health is good for us.

Among the polyunsaturated fats, both omega-6, found in most plant oils, and omega-3 fatty acids, found in fish and soy and canola oils, were associated with lower risk of premature death.

The Western diet is toxic purely because there’s too much omega 6, a deadly excess.

The lifespan of India also suggests avoiding animal products is…. ill-advised.

People who replaced saturated fats with carbohydrates had only slightly lower mortality risk.

eat your GMO grains, you’ll live longer

sounds legit

“Our study shows the importance of eliminating trans fat and replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fats, including both omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In practice, this can be achieved by replacing animal fats with a variety of liquid vegetable oils,” said senior author Frank Hu, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Harvard Chan School and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.

An Asian at Chan school.

Looking as Asia’s meat consumption, you are lying.

Chinese meat imports to expand in 2019: https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/livestock_poultry.pdf

Despite global promises to reduce over the past few years.

Maybe I’ll do a whole post.

The only confirmed finding is lab grown shit is toxic.

This Is Your Brain On Trans Fats, Artificial Sweeteners And Alcohol

Trans Fats

As of June 18 of this year, trans fats have been officially banned from all manufactured foods.

Nope.

Research in the 1990s found a strong link between trans fats, also known as “partially hydrogenated oil,” and heart disease.

You are what you eat.

In addition, more and more studies are finding that trans fats cause cellular destruction in the brain and can adversely impact hormone production, memory and increase inflammation by suppressing the production of Omega-3 fatty acids.

Actively suppresses omega 3.

Now, our brains do need fat to function. In fact, the brain relies on natural, healthy fats to maintain cell membranes, keep brain inflammation at bay and transport fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E and K. Focus on getting your daily doses of fat from olive oil, coconut oil, nuts, seeds and avocado.

A study of almost 3000 people in 2017 reported a link between artificial sugar consumption and an increased risk of stroke and dementia. In the study, those participants that reported having just one diet beverage a day were three times more likely to develop dementia or suffer from a stroke. Although more research is needed, the findings are alarming.

Aspartame, one of the most commonly used artificial sweeteners in foods and beverages, has also been shown to cause neurodegeneration, mood imbalances and potentially cause brain cells to kill themselves. Instead of artificial sweeteners, use small amounts of natural sugar, such as raw honey, pure maple syrup or dates.

Yeah it also tastes like death.

A literal neurotoxin.

A study of 550 men and women over 30 years published in The BMJ found that even moderate drinking, which they defined as about 6-9 drinks a week, can damage the brain, including hippocampal atrophy.

Anyone that has had a few drinks knows that alcohol can impair judgement, balance, speech and even memory. Many studies have shown that long term heavy drinking can create serious and persistent changes in brain function that include mental confusion, eye nerve paralysis and difficulty with muscle coordination.

Drunkenness is just a form of brain damage that becomes more persistent with chronic alcoholism.

Until they never ‘sober up’ – clear the toxin, ever again.

Let the brain shrinkage vegans eat their fake flesh.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955571/

Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have come up with the recommendation that the contents of TFA in human dietary fat should be reduced to less than 4%. There is high prevalence of CVD in Pakistan. High consumption of vanaspati ghee which contains 14.2-34.3% of TFA could be one of the factors for this increased burden of CVD in Pakistan. Consumption of dietary fat low in TFA would be helpful in reducing the risk of CVD in South Asia. Denmark by banning the sale of food items with TFA has brought down the number of deaths due to coronary heart disease by nearly 50% over a period of 20 years. Public awareness about the adverse effects of TFA on human health would be extremely important. Media can play a very effective role in educating the masses and advocating the policy for the sale of only low TFA food items.

It merits legal banning.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3280054/

 A third pattern characterized by high trans fat was associated with less favorable cognitive function and less total cerebral brain volume.

Participants with higher plasma trans fat scores had worse cognitive function overall (memory, attention, language, processing speed, and global).

Each 1-SD increase in the trans fat score associated with a 0.30-SD decrease in global cognitive score.

You sure showed us!

They’re literally retarding themselves.

The high trans fat pattern was consistently associated with worse cognitive performance and less TCBV. Linolelaidic acid is predominantly found in bakery foods such as cookies, doughnuts, cakes, pastries, and pies.

I’d rather eat a donut than fake oozing flesh.

These foods are often prepared with hydrogenated vegetable oils to allow for a long shelf life. Higher trans fatty acid intake increases cardiovascular risk, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which may explain an association with cognition., Unfortunately, very few studies have assessed trans fat and risk for cognitive decline.

Funny that.

Big Food funding PACs?

Simple, scan vegan brains and see if they’re atrophied.

Trans fat may aggravate cognitive function independently and jointly through interaction with other dietary factors.e11 Trans fat may displace DHA in neuronal membranes, but apparently does not impact the neuropathologic Alzheimer hallmarks in mice.The consistency of the association of plasma trans fat with poorer cognitive function and more brain atrophy suggests neurologic consequences in humans, but these findings need to be confirmed.

Well?

5 Reasons Vegetable Oil is Worse Than Sugar

The European Food Safety Authority issued a report last year warning consumers about the high levels of potentially carcinogenic contaminants in palm oil (an ingredient used in Kit Kat Bars, Nutella, and Cheez-Its, among other treats) when refined at temperatures above 392°F.

AMERICA

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16841858

With caveats inherent for ecologic, nutrient disappearance analyses, a healthy dietary allowance for n-3 LCFAs for current US diets was estimated at 3.5 g/d for a 2000-kcal diet. This allowance for n-3 LCFAs can likely be reduced to one-tenth of that amount by consuming fewer n-6 fats.

JUST STOP EATING PROCESSED CRAP.

It’ll cost more in hospital bills.

Fat soil makes you healthier

Nature is so weird.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/05/190529094003.htm

The discovery, published Monday in the journal Psychopharmacology, may at least partly explain how the bacterium, Mycobacterium vaccae, quells stress-related disorders. It also brings the researchers one step closer to developing a microbe-based “stress vaccine.”

Why get a vaccine when you can literally stick your hand in the ground?

British scientist David Strachan first proposed the controversial “hygiene hypothesis” in 1989, suggesting that in our modern, sterile world, lack of exposure to microorganisms in childhood was leading to impaired immune systems and higher rates of allergies and asthma. Researchers have since refined that theory, suggesting that it is not lack of exposure to disease-causing germs at play, but rather to “old friends” — beneficial microbes in soil and the environment that we have long lived alongside — and that mental health is also impacted.

Blood and soil. Foreign invaders haven’t adapted to our land. Useful if you know a pandemic is coming. Nationalism is biological, it’s about adaptation through generations to one ecosystem and even overall evolution e.g. nasal shape. Birthright is a term for it legally. Your success and potential to flourish depends on remaining in that land. I know eventually our boat people will leave and part of it will be a sense they don’t fit here, climate events or not, people move to where their genome evolved to, over a long timeline.

Of course, cutting off the electric would hasten the process.

Also why you eat local, at least a little. And keep away from most spices, they inhibit adaptation (absorption) to local valuable microbes (priceless in SHTF). At least don’t eat them at the same time. Those Middle Eastern spices came about because their local microbes are deadly.

I know I mentioned this finding before but still.

They also found that when cells were pre-treated with the lipid they were more resistant to inflammation when stimulated.

Fat isn’t the enemy. Lab fat is.

And if further studies show the novel fat alone has therapeutic effects, that molecule could become a target for drug development, he said.

It’s literally in dirt, fuck you I’ll buy a shovel.

Can we make shekels off this free natural product?

Overall, the study offers further proof that our “old friends” have a lot to offer.

I wonder if a study of immigrants to an area would show the same benefits. Probably reduced if any.

They didn’t co-evolve.

“This is just one strain of one species of one type of bacterium that is found in the soil but there are millions of other strains in soils,” Lowry said. “We are just beginning to see the tip of the iceberg in terms of identifying the mechanisms through which they have evolved to keep us healthy. It should inspire awe in all of us.”

So glad I was ordered to play in dirt as a child.

Iodine and IQ

aka most of the Thing behind the Flynn effect.

Vegans are deficient.

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)60436-5/fulltext

We assessed the association between maternal iodine status and child IQ at age 8 years and reading ability at age 9 years. We included 21 socioeconomic, parental, and child factors as confounders.

Our results show the importance of adequate iodine status during early gestation and emphasise the risk that iodine deficiency can pose to the developing infant, even in a country classified as only mildly iodine deficient. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in the UK should be treated as an important public health issue that needs attention.

After adjustment for confounders, children of women with an iodine-to-creatinine ratio of less than 150 μg/g were more likely to have scores in the lowest quartile for verbal IQ (odds ratio 1·58, 95% CI 1·09–2·30; p=0·02), reading accuracy (1·69, 1·15–2·49; p=0·007), and reading comprehension (1·54, 1·06–2·23; p=0·02) than were those of mothers with ratios of 150 μg/g or more.

How?

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15554884

The present comments are restricted to the role of maternal thyroid hormone on early brain development, and are based mostly on information presently available for the human fetal brain. It emphasizes that maternal hypothyroxinemia – defined as thyroxine (T4) concentrations that are low for the stage of pregnancy – is potentially damaging for neurodevelopment of the fetus throughout pregnancy, but especially so before midgestation, as the mother is then the only source of T4 for the developing brain.

Despite a highly efficient uterine-placental ‘barrier’ to their transfer, very small amounts of T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) of maternal origin are present in the fetal compartment by 4 weeks after conception, with T4 increasing steadily thereafter. A major proportion of T4 in fetal fluids is not protein-bound: the ‘free’ T4 (FT4) available to fetal tissues is determined by the maternal serum T4, and reaches concentrations known to be of biological significance in adults. Despite very low T3 and ‘free’ T3 (FT3) in fetal fluids, the T3 generated locally from T4 in the cerebral cortex reaches adult concentrations by midgestation, and is partly bound to its nuclear receptor. Experimental results in the rat strongly support the conclusion that thyroid hormone is already required for normal corticogenesis very early in pregnancy. The first trimester surge of maternal FT4 is proposed as a biologically relevant event controlled by the conceptus to ensure its developing cerebral cortex is provided with the necessary amounts of substrate for the local generation of adequate amounts of T3 for binding to its nuclear receptor.

Don’t worry, the brain damage was genetic anyway.

Women unable to increase their production of T4 early in pregnancy would constitute a population at risk for neurological disabilities in their children. As mild-moderate iodine deficiency is still the most widespread cause of maternal hypothyroxinemia in Western societies, the birth of many children with learning disabilities may already be preventable by advising women to take iodine supplements as soon as pregnancy starts, or earlier if possible.

More!

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1741987/

This editorial reviews the impact of iodine deficiency (1) on thyroid function in pregnant women and neonates and (2) on the neurointellectual development of infants and children.
All degrees of iodine deficiency (mild: iodine intake of 50-99 µg/day, moderate: 20-49 µg/day, and severe: <20 µg/day) affect thyroid function of the mother and the neonate as well as the mental development of the child. The damage increases with the degree of the deficiency, with overt endemic cretinism as the severest consequence. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during early pregnancy is a key factor in the development of the neurological damage in the cretin. Selenium deficiency combined with iodine deficiency partly prevents the neurological damage but precipitates severe hypothyroidism in cretins.
Iodine deficiency results in a global loss of 10-15 IQ points at a population level and constitutes the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation.

An entire Standard Deviation, no big deal!

Supplements won’t help, you’ll OD.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3976240/

Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent.

The Great Iodine Debate

FYI

Iodine is critical to human health. It forms the basis of thyroid hormones and plays many other roles in human biochemistry. While the thyroid gland contains the body’s highest concentration of iodine, the salivary glands, brain, cerebrospinal fluid, gastric mucosea, breasts, ovaries and a part of the eye also concentrate iodine. In the brain, iodine is found in the choroid plexus, the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced, and in the substantia nigra, an area associated with Parkinson’s disease.

Iodine is essential to normal growth and development. Iodine deficiency in utero and during growth can result in cretinism, a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to prolonged nutritional deficiency of iodine or from untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). The condition is characterized by short stature, delayed bone maturation and puberty, infertility, neurological impairment and cognitive impairment ranging from mild to severe. Iodine deficiency also causes goiter, the gradual enlargement of the thyroid gland. Both conditions have led to public health campaigns of iodine administration in many countries. The addition of iodine compounds to table salt or water represents the first attempt to provide nutrient supplementation via “fortification” of common foods.

At least they won’t have grandkids.

https://www.drbrownstein.com/iodine-the-essential-nutrient-for-every-cell/

https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/06/29/iodine-deficiency-risk.aspx

China paper here:

http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/14/1/32.pdf

also here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15734706

IQ so unreal it tracks brain damage.

The level of iodine nutrition plays a crucial role in the intellectual development of children. The intelligence damage of children exposed to severe ID was profound, demonstrated by 12.45 IQ points loss and they recovered 8.7 IQ points with iodine supplementation or IS before and during pregnancy. Iodine supplementation before and during pregnancy to women living in severe ID areas could prevent their children from intelligence deficit. This effect becomes evident in children born 3.5 years after the iodine supplementation program was introduced.

And now… we wait.

Vegans stupid while pregnant again

B12 deficiency causes pre-term birth (higher risk of disease, death) and lower birth weight (yeah, like smoking).

https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/185/3/212/2918733

Really at this point it’s a controlled late abortion than a birth, isn’t it?

Globally, preterm birth and low birth weight (LBW) cause more than a third of the 2.9 million neonatal deaths each year, and prevention of these events is an important component of reducing the mortality rate among children younger than 5 years of age (1, 2). The causes of preterm birth, however, are complex, and few interventions have been successful in preventing it (3).

Really.

Eat some fucking cheese. So complex.

tfw Mother Nature hates you.

However, in a recent meta-analysis, Haider and Bhutta (10) concluded that multiple-micronutrient supplementation may reduce the risk of LBW and the number of stillbirths but not the risk of preterm birth or neonatal mortality. Thus, a more targeted micronutrient supplementation practice may be warranted.

Won’t work.

You can’t supplement stupidity.

If they’d rather the baby die than get over themselves, they don’t deserve kids.

I love the ineffectual response of “supplements won’t work, but our solution is more of them”.

Your intellectual betters, behold!

Importantly, B12 deficiency may be a proxy for inadequate nutritional status, and it is possible that some of our findings are related to nutritional status and not specifically to B12. A predominantly plant-based diet is low in B12 but also other nutrients, such as vitamin D and zinc, that to some degree may be associated with preterm birth (42–44). We did not have information on dietary intake or blood levels of these nutrients. Nutritional status could explain the present finding of an association between B12 and birth weight in low- and middle-income countries but not high-income countries. However, lower vitamin B12 levels were associated with higher risk of preterm birth irrespective of country income. It seems less likely that nutritional status can fully explain this finding.

Vegetarianism: the Third World baby death diet.

Indian women generally have lower dietary intakes of B12 because of their mainly vegetarian diet, making them susceptible to B12 deficiency (46). Additionally, Indian newborns are among the smallest in the world (45). Our findings suggest that pregnancies already at the greatest risk of resulting in small newborns were the ones that were most vulnerable to low levels of B12. The association between B12 and the risk of preterm birth was consistent across studies in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries, and generalization to countries not studied may be feasible.

Stop eating vegan junk food.

In line with our findings, maternal obesity has been associated with B12 deficiency in several populations (47, 48). It has been hypothesized that this association is due to altered fat distribution and metabolism in overweight women compared with normal-weight women (47). Maternal weight is positively correlated with newborn weight (49), and failure to adjust for maternal weight may underestimate a positive association between B12 and birth weight.

Clearly Mother Nature is fatphobic.

paper 43
Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927101
44
Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3747784/
https://www.cochrane.org/CD008873/PREG_vitamin-d-supplementation-women-during-pregnancy

Put down the leafy greens.
“However, it appears that when vitamin D and calcium are combined, the risk of preterm birth is increased.”

Food babies

Insight into vegan menopause.
“Drinking whole fat milk and eating ice cream appears to be better for women trying to become pregnant than a diet consisting of low-fat dairy products such as skim milk and yogurt, according to new research published in Human Reproduction journal. Researchers in the United States have found a link between a low-fat dairy diet and increased risk of anovulatory infertility.”
You don’t have to tell me twice to eat ice cream, mate.
“Further, lactose (the main carbohydrate in milk and dairy products) may not affect fertility within the usual range of intake levels in humans.”
Good to know.
“Consumption of iron supplements and nonheme iron from other sources may decrease the risk of ovulatory infertility.”
Yes, my favourite iron supplement is called steak. Recommend.
Especially with three times “too much” garlic butter.
“Folic acid appeared to explain part of the association between multivitamin supplement use and risk of ovulatory infertility.”
Sorry but I don’t trust Crunchy Nut cornflakes with the fate of my future children’s health.
“Dairy consumption was not significantly correlated with PCOS. However, after adjustment for confounders, there was an direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS.”

“the results showed that the intake amounts of Ca, Mg, D vitamin, dairy, fruits and nuts and seeds were remarkably low among the women with PCOS.”

What are they living on, Oreos?

“some evidence on the decreased amount of adiponectine, calcium, D vitamin in the patients suffering from PCOS with having a higher thyroglobulin”

Vegans.

“Numerous studies have demonstrated the association between the diet and its components and risk factors developing various diseases.[] However, previous studies did not address the relationship between nutrition choices and type of diet chosen by the patients.[]”
“According to existing data, women trying to achieve pregnancy are encouraged to increase consumption of whole grains, omega-3 fatty acids, fish, and soy and to reduce consumption of trans fats and red meat. In addition, a daily multivitamin that contains folic acid before and during pregnancy may not only prevent birth defects, but also improve the chance of achieving and maintaining a pregnancy. In contrast, there is limited evidence supporting an association betweenvitamin D and human fecundity outcomes despite promising evidence from nonhuman studies.
Yeah because that’s relevant.
Questions for future research included the roles of other types of fat (especially omega-6 and monounsaturated fats) and protein (especially white meat and seafood) on female fertility; particular attention should also be paid to exposure to environmental contaminants in foods. Although much work remains, this review accrued best available evidence to provide practical dietary recommendations for women trying to conceive.”
Bolded valuable parts.
“One approach to minimize the impact of anovulation on fertility is supplementation with progesterone during recruitment, selection and final stages of development of the preovulatory follicle. It is suggested that a minimum of 2.0 ng/mL of progesterone is needed during growth of the preovulatory follicle to achieve P/AI similar to that of cows growing the preovulatory follicle during diestrus.”
But one of the Pills is that….
Does taking that Pill increase odds of pregnancy?
Big if true.
The literature on the relationship between diet and human fertility has greatly expanded over the last decade, resulting in the identification of a few clear patterns. Intake of supplemental folic acid, particularly at doses higher than those recommended for the prevention of neural tube defects, has been consistently related to lower frequency of infertility, lower risk of pregnancy loss, and greater success in infertility treatment. On the other hand and despite promising evidence from animal models, vitamin D does not appear to exert an important role in human fertility in the absence of deficiency.
But most people are deficient….
That’s like saying you can stand outside normally -except when there’s a hurricane.
And there’s currently a hurricane.
Antioxidant supplementation does not appear to offer any benefits to women undergoing infertility treatment, but it appears to be beneficial when it is the male partner who is supplemented.
Duh.
Reduce genetic load.
However, the available evidence does not allow discerning which specific antioxidants, or at which doses, are responsible for this benefit. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids appear to improve female fertility, although it remains unclear to what extent contamination of shared food sources, such as fish with high levels of environmental toxicants, can dampen this benefit.
Comforting.
Eat this mercury (sushi fad) it’s good for your baby!
Lastly, adherence to healthy diets favoring seafood, poultry, whole grainsfruits, and vegetables are related to better fertility in women and better semen quality in men.
Could you be a little more specific?
You just named, like, most food.
They’re paid with our taxes, daylight robbery.
The cumulative evidence has also piled against popular hypotheses.
I doubt that.
Sounds like someone wants a juicy research grant.
Dairy and soy, once proposed as reproductive toxicants, have not been consistently related to poor fertility.
Because you refuse to test them separately.
If only a group ate one and not t’uther.
CONSISTENTLY.
In fact, soy and soy supplements appear to exert a beneficial effect among women undergoing infertility treatment.
Many have low estrogen, next!
Giving people with scurvy vitamin C helps! Next!
Similarly, because data from large, high-quality studies continue to accumulate, the evidence of a potentially deleterious effect of moderate alcohol and caffeine intake on the ability to become pregnant seems less solid than it once did.
But potentially, if you can’t put down the coffee or wine, Barbara, maybe you shouldn’t be having kids? Same goes for men without the energy. Now. Without kids.
Why do narcs consider children a human right?
Sort your energy level out BEFORE kids, at least?
While a complete picture of the role of nutrition on fertility is far from complete, much progress has been made. The most salient gaps in the current evidence include jointly considering female and male diets and testing the most consistent findings in randomized trials.
Fuck, men influence pregnancy? What witchcraft is this?
Their only biological contribution is determined by things that occurred in the years before conception?
Say it isn’t so.
What term could possibly exist to describe this Darwinian fitness between men?
Hold men responsible for their bad habits affecting their innocent child’s health outcomes and literal lifespan and I might be impressed.
Posting will be patchy because of my feelings.