Hospital clothing contaminated

https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(11)00117-9/abstract

Hang on, aren’t women forced into gowns without underwear? Then told to sit down? Same gowns worn by other women before?

Could that source of fomite explain previous studies of HPV infection, among virgins?

For example,  a small study published in 2009 indicated that not only were 15% of all stethoscopes tested contaminated with MRSA, but also that the MRSA on the stethoscopes had survived there for upwards of 60 days!

Also, most hospitals do not allow artifical fingernails or nail enhancement on health care workers because the false nails (fomites) consistently have higher bacterial loads than natural nails. Also, there have been a number of studies (example) where doctor’s neckties were found to be commonly contaminated with bacteria. Not all that shocking when you think about how often men wash their ties?

Why are doctors wearing ties?

But most recently, a new  study published in the American Journal of Infection Control, 60-65% of scrubs and lab coats of health care workers tested in the report were contaminated with potentially dangerous bacteria.  The pockets, sleeves, and abdominal areas were tested. Additionally, 21 of nurse’s samples and 6 from the doctor’s samples taken were drug resistant.  Eight of the samples were identified as MRSA (methicillin resistant Staph aureus ).

This is not exactly news, as there are several previous articles detailing how bacteria can survive on various cloth and plastic surfaces, as well as on lab coats in general.

Imagine how gross plastic Ikea furniture is…

eww…

Hospitals  and doctors are struggling to get it right, though. Just announced in 2010, the  DocFroc:

lab coats and scrubs that are embedded with Tri-Active, an FDA approved silver-based antimicrobial compound that can kill resistant micro-organisms such as MRSA, ECOLI and Salmonella.

It appears that the most important factor in prevention of disease is to simply better identify what has been transferring disease in the first place.

If they believed in germ theory they wouldn’t avoid disposable specula to save a few cents.

How much is half the population’s life worth? Plenty of baby health and defect issues could be avoided with proper female health care. This is part of the reason women are scared to have kids, so called trad men instantly stop giving a shit after conception. If she dies prematurely of cervical cancer though, they hand wave it away because while they pretend to care about forced vaccination, they don’t even pretend to care about forced, dangerous ‘pelvic exams’.

from

Fomites, fomites, fomites!

Neanderthals’ DNA legacy linked to modern ailments

Full from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2014/01/neanderthals-dna-legacy-linked-to-modern-ailments/ ;

Remnants of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans are associated with genes affecting type 2 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, lupus, biliary cirrhosis, and smoking behavior. They also concentrate in genes that influence skin and hair characteristics. At the same time, Neanderthal DNA is conspicuously low in regions of the X chromosome and testes-specific genes.

The research, led by Harvard Medical School (HMS) geneticists and published Jan. 29 in Nature, suggests ways in which genetic material inherited from Neanderthals has proven both adaptive and maladaptive for modern humans. (A related paper by a separate team was published concurrently in Science.)

“Now that we can estimate the probability that a particular genetic variant arose from Neanderthals, we can begin to understand how that inherited DNA affects us,” said David Reich, professor of genetics at HMS and senior author of the paper.

In the past few years, studies by groups including Reich’s have revealed that present-day people of non-African ancestry trace an average of about 2 percent of their genomes to Neanderthals — a legacy of interbreeding between humans and Neanderthals that the team previously showed occurred between 40,000 to 80,000 years ago. (Indigenous Africans have little or no Neanderthal DNA because their ancestors did not breed with Neanderthals, who lived in Europe and Asia.)

Several teams have since been able to flag Neanderthal DNA at certain locations in the non-African human genome, but until now, there was no survey of Neanderthal ancestry across the genome and little understanding of the biological significance of that genetic heritage.

“The story of early human evolution is captivating in itself, yet it also has far-reaching implications for understanding the organization of the modern human genome,” said Irene A. Eckstrand of the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of General Medical Sciences, which partially funded the research. “Every piece of this story that we uncover tells us more about our ancestors’ genetic contributions to modern human health and disease.”

Deserts and oases

Reich and his colleagues — including Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany — analyzed genetic variants in 846 people of non-African heritage, 176 people from sub-Saharan Africa, and a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal whose high-quality genome sequence the team published in 2013.

The most powerful information the researchers used to determine whether a gene variant came from a Neanderthal was if it appeared in some non-Africans and the Neanderthal, but not in the sub-Saharan Africans.

Using this and other types of information, the team found that some areas of the modern non-African human genome were rich in Neanderthal DNA, which may have been helpful for human survival, while other areas were more like “deserts” with far less Neanderthal ancestry than average.

The barren areas were the “most exciting” finding, said first author Sriram Sankararaman of HMS and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT. “It suggests the introduction of some of these Neanderthal mutations was harmful to the ancestors of non-Africans and that these mutations were later removed by the action of natural selection.”

The team showed that the areas with reduced Neanderthal ancestry tend to cluster in two parts of our genomes: genes that are most active in the male germline (the testes) and genes on the X chromosome. This pattern has been linked in many animals to a phenomenon known as hybrid infertility, where the offspring of a male from one subspecies and a female from another have low or no fertility.

“This suggests that when ancient humans met and mixed with Neanderthals, the two species were at the edge of biological incompatibility,” said Reich, who is also a senior associate member of the Broad Institute and an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Present-day human populations, which can be separated from one another by as much as 100,000 years (such as West Africans and Europeans), are fully compatible with no evidence of increased male infertility. In contrast, ancient human and Neanderthal populations apparently faced interbreeding challenges after 500,000 years of evolutionary separation.

“It is fascinating that these types of problems could arise over that short a time scale,” Reich said.

A lasting heritage

The team also measured how Neanderthal DNA present in human genomes today affects keratin production and disease risk.

Neanderthal ancestry is increased in genes affecting keratin filaments. This fibrous protein lends toughness to skin, hair, and nails and can be beneficial in colder environments by providing thicker insulation, said Reich. “It’s tempting to think that Neanderthals were already adapted to the non-African environment and provided this genetic benefit to humans,” he speculated.

The researchers also showed that nine previously identified human genetic variants known to be associated with specific traits likely came from Neanderthals. These variants affect diseases related to immune function and also some behaviors, such as the ability to stop smoking. The team expects that more variants will be found to have Neanderthal origins.

The team has already begun trying to improve their human genome ancestry results by analyzing multiple Neanderthals instead of one. Together with colleagues in Britain, they have developed a test that can detect most of the approximately 100,000 mutations of Neanderthal origin they discovered in people of European ancestry; they are conducting an analysis in a biobank containing genetic data from half a million Britons.

I VOLUNTEER.

“I expect that this study will result in a better and more systematic understanding of how Neanderthal ancestry affects variation in human traits today,” said Sankararaman.

As another next step, the team is studying genome sequences from people from Papua New Guinea to build a database of genetic variants that can be compared to those of Denisovans, a third population of ancient humans that left most of its genetic traces in Oceania but little in mainland Eurasia.

How did I find this story? Funny story.
A moron on tumblr who doesn’t understand evolution. For lolz;

SJWsdon'tdoDarwinwtfhowfacepalmingsrsly
No one told them Neanderthals had high IQs and ginger hair. Hush. Don’t spoil it for them.
Let them drone on about discredited Afrocentrist ‘racial purity’ pipedreams. And evolution is a constant process for the record. “We are changing the main narrative. Neanderthals were just as adaptable and in many ways, simply victims of their own success.” How’s Africa doing on the global scale compared to every other country? Still rape and murder capital of the world? Hmm.

First antibiotic resistant bacteria found in food

coverage here

In squid.

“Most governmental programs geared to examining food products for safety, only look for the usual suspects, E. coli, Listeria, etc. If relatively harmless resistant bacteria are in the food chain, it’s only a matter of time, the researchers note, before harmful types of bacteria that can cause serious problems develop the same resistance, leaving physicians with no options to treat victims. A chilling announcement if ever there was one.”

Microbes are more interesting than people, to people

from an Oxford geneticist, good-good;

Human genetics is microbial genomics

“Never mind about sequencing your own genome. Only 10% of cells on your “human” body are human anyway, the rest are microbial. And their genomes are far more interesting.

For one thing, there’s a whole ecosystem out there, made up of many species. Typically a person harbours 1,000 or more different species in their gut alone. For another, a person’s health is to a large part determined by the microbes that live on their body, whether that be as part of a long-term commensal relationship or an acute pathogenic interaction.

With 20% of the world’s deaths still attributable to infectious disease, the re-emergence of ancient pathogens driven by ever-increasing antibiotic resistance, and the UK’s 100K Genome Project– many of which will have to be genomes from patients (i.e. microbes) rather than patients’ own genomes given its budget – pathogen genomics is very much at the top of the agenda.

So what do pathogen genomes have to tell us?

  • Transmission. British researchers have been leading the use of genomics for routine “microbial forensics” in the NHS. Pioneering studies in Oxford and Cambridge focusing on the hospital-associated pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile have demonstrated how real-time genomics will revolutionize medical microbiology by detecting outbreaks as they occur.
  • Antibiotic resistance. Individual patients will benefit from pathogen genomics through accurate prediction of antibiotic resistance profiles. Already whole-genome sequencing outcompetes conventional techniques in speed and cost for some pathogens. High accuracy has been demonstrated in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, pathogens in which the recent rise of antibiotic resistance has been particularly alarming.
  • Within-host evolution. For the first time genomics has detailed the microevolution of bacteria within the human body, revealing parallel evolution across patients in an outbreak of Burkholderia dolosa in cystic fibrosis patients, and an excess of protein-truncating mutations associated with disease progression in chronic Staphylococcus aureus carriage, underlining the potential of the body’s natural flora to evolve and ultimately subjugate its host.
  • Disease severity. Pinpointing the genetic basis of important microbial phenotypes – principal among which being disease severity – is the next big challenge for pathogen genomics. In other words, pathogen genome-wide association studies (pathogen GWAS). While much is known about the molecular mechanisms of virulence in microbes, population-based studies that ask why some bacteria make people more sick, or sick more often, are almost entirely lacking. By distinguishing hypervirulent from avirulent strains, and unearthing new avenues for drug design, pathogen GWAS has the potential to radically impact public health policy and individual patient management.

Important obstacles still lie in the way of genome-wide association studies in pathogens, because of fundamental differences between humans and microbes in the way they reproduce and exchange genetic material. But these challenges can be overcome through a detailed understanding of microbial population structure that whole genome sequencing is giving us.

Pathogen genomics is gathering pace – in the Modernising Medical Microbiology consortium alone we have sequenced over 15,000 bacterial genomes in the last 3 years – and ambitious projects such as 100K Foodborne Pathogen Genome Project at UC Davis aim to sequence many more. With such momentum, and innovation in our methods of analysis, it is only a matter of time before we begin making giant inroads into understanding the genetic architecture of infectious disease.”

As the science of genetics progresses, it will render itself largely obsolete.
Once everything is sequenced and explained in a comprehensive database, there won’t be much to do.
It will knock out a few politically correct falsehoods in the way, though.

 

Humans are still evolving. Duh.

article here;

“Historically, the birthing process has limited brain size, because babies’ heads had to fit through the birth canal.

Today, however, Caesarian sections circumvent that process. As many as 46 percent of babies born today in China are delivered via C-section, Pobiner said. With advances in fertility and better postnatal medical care, she asked, “Are we screwing with natural selection?” [DS: yes]

The world population is growing, and a bigger population also evolves faster, Pobiner said. But, with rising sea levels and less land available, waterborne and airborne illness could spread more easily [global plague], Pobiner said.

The largest virus ever found was a virus thawed from permafrost, known as Pithovirus. While this parasite doesn’t infect humans, what if other ancient viruses thaw out that are harmful? [then non-Europeans will die] For example, the smallpox virus was eradicated in 1979, according to the World Health Organization, but some experts say it has only been eradicated from the Earth’s surface, surviving instead in frozen form. [diseases evolve too]

And human evolution persists in other areas too, such as sexual selection. A recent study found that beards become more attractive when they’re rare in a population. When “peak beard” is reached, they become less attractive, the study found. Economic conditions may also influence beardedness, as unemployed men may use beards as a sign of masculinity, Pobiner said.”