COVID, sperm infertility and STD potential

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/andr.12859
COVID-19 and human spermatozoa—Potential risks for infertility and sexual transmission?

TLDR: scroll to end

As COVID-19 infections wreak havoc across the globe, attention has rightly been focused on the vital organ systems (lung, kidney and heart) that are vulnerable to viral attack and contribute to the acute pathology associated with this disease.

However, we should not lose sight of the fact that COVID-19 will attack any cell type in the body expressing ACE2 – including human spermatozoa.

These cells possess the entire repertoire of receptors (AT1R, AT2R, MAS) and ligand processing enzymes (ACE1 and ACE2) needed to support the angiotensin signalling cascade.

The latter not only provides COVID-19 with a foothold on the sperm surface but may also promote integration, given the additional presence of a range of proteases (TMPRSS2, TMPRSS11B, TMPRSS12, furin) capable of promoting viral fusion.

This article reviews the roles played by these various cellular constituents in maintaining the vitality of human spermatozoa and their competence for fertilization. The reproductive consequences of a viral attack on these systems, in terms of fertility and the risk of sexual transmission, are currently unknown.

However, we should be alive to the possibility that there may be reproductive consequences of COVID-19 infection in young males that go beyond their capacity to survive a viral attack.

If only someone warned you.

A recent report published in JAMA Network Open revealed that in an analysis 38 semen samples from COVID-19 patients, 6 (four at the acute stage of infection and, alarmingly, two who were recovering) tested positive for the virus by RT-PCR.1 Importantly, at this point, we have no idea whether the actual virus was viable and infectious. Nevertheless, the possibility that this coronavirus could have a pathophysiological impact on the testes was suggested by additional data indicating that active COVID-19 infection dramatically reduced the testosterone-to-LH ratio, suggesting a significant impact on the responsiveness of Leydig cells to LH stimulation.2 

In many ways, we should not be surprised by these observations because the blood-testes barrier is known to offer little defense against viral invasion, given the wide range of pathogenic viruses (HIV, hepatitis, mumps, papilloma) that are known to be capable of damaging the testes and rendering the host infertile. Furthermore, the spike protein that gives the COVID-19 virus its corona is known to target ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), which is highly expressed by several cell types in the testes including Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, and the germ line.

As a result of these factors, several opinion pieces have been published already, raising the possibility of testicular damage and infertility consequent to COVID-19 infection.24 However, it is also possible that the virus could gain access to male germ cells once they leave the testes, either in the epididymis or following ejaculation. In this Opinion Article, I shall be focusing on this post-testicular route of infection pointing out, for the first time, that the mature spermatozoon has all of the machinery needed to bind this virus, fuse with it, and even achieve reverse transcription of the viral RNA into proviral DNA. Such considerations raise the possibility that spermatozoa could act as potential vectors of this highly infectious disease. This happens in insects5—why not us?

“Furthermore, the spike protein that gives COVID-19 virus its corona is known to target ACE2…”

“However, it is also possible that the virus could gain access to male germ cells once they leave the testes… following ejaculation.”

to put it in terms you degenerates can understand

It has been known for many years that the human sperm surface expresses ACE.

Indeed, an examination of existing proteomic databases68 as well as surveys of the sperm surface with monoclonal antibodies,9 demonstrates that these cells, quite literally, hold all of the ACEs.

now I am fucking with you yes indeedy do

They have been known for some time to express a testicular variant of ACE1, which converts the inactive decapeptide hormone, angiotensin I, to the active octapeptide, angiotensin II (Figure 1). Testicular ACE corresponds to the ancestral non-duplicated form of the ACE gene; it lacks multiple 5′ exons and has a distinct N-terminus: biochemically however, it performs exactly the same function as somatic ACE1.10 Spermatozoa also express ACE2, which converts angiotensin II to angiotensin (1-7). Reference to the human sperm proteome also indicates that these cells possess the two known receptors for angiotensin II: angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) and (angiotensin II type-2 receptor) (AT2R). Furthermore, a recent publication has revealed that human spermatozoa also express the angiotensin (1-7) MAS receptor.9 These cells therefore possess the complete repertoire of ligand-processing enzymes and receptors needed to support angiotensin signaling pathways, raising questions about the physiological roles these pathways play and how they might intersect with COVID-19 (Figure 1).

Germ cells are unipotent stem cells that divide to produce gametes in sexually reproducing organisms. A germ cell undergoes meiotic cell division to produce genetically unique, haploid sex cells, which then fuse during fertilization to form a diploid zygote. In female organisms, germ cells give rise to egg cells and, in males, they produce sperm cells.

Germ cells are the cells that give rise to gametes in all sexually reproducing organisms. In vertebrates, they are the precursors of male sperm cells and female egg cells. Collectively, all the germ cells in an organism are known as the germline.

Germ cells are the type of stem cell that gives rise to gametes. They are, therefore, the origin cells of all sexually reproducing organisms, and allow individual members of a species to pass on genetic information to their offspring. The inheritance of DNA is the driving force behind natural selection and evolution, and the fact that germ cells divide by meiosis ensures maximal genetic variation among gametes.

From top paper:

“The spike protein on COVID-19 specifically targets ACE2 and in so doing removes an important stimulus for PI3K/AKT, thereby compromising sperm viability.”

“Alternatively proteases from the TMPRSS-family, either as intrinsic components of the sperm plasma membrane or delivered by seminal prostasomes, can facilitate fusion between the virus and the sperm surface by cleaving ACE2 and the viral spike proteins (S1 and S2) at the sites indicated by dashed lines, thereby completing the transformation of this cell from procreating gamete to viral vector

Big Pharma Balls? Mutant metaplasia.

“Actual fusion between the virus and human spermatozoa requires the presence of the above-mentioned protease, TMPRSS2, to cleave the viral spike proteins (S) at the S1/S2 boundary or within S2 subunit, thereby removing the structural constraint of S1 on S2 and releasing the internal membrane fusion peptide (Figure 1). This protease is known to be present in prostasomes that are released into seminal fluid from the prostate gland at ejaculation.29 As one of the major functions of these exosome-like structures is to transfer their contents, including proteins, to the spermatozoa following ejaculation, the incorporation of TMPRSS2 from this source seems probable.30 “

How many times must I try to save your nuts?

The presence of these activating proteases as well as ACE2 in the sperm plasma membrane would be expected to allow the COVID-19 virus to bind to the cell surface and ultimately fuse, either in the testes or during the prolonged sojourn of these cells in the epididymis. In contrast, oocytes appear to be completely devoid of TMPRSS2,33 making infection of the female germ line highly unlikelyunless, of course, they are fertilized by a COVID-19 carrying spermatozoon. In this context, it should be emphasized spermatozoa have a demonstrable capacity to carry viral infections from the male to the female reproductive tract, as happens during the sexual transmission of the Zika virus, for example.34 They also have a proven capacity to fuse with enveloped viruses35 and possess reverse transcriptase activity capable of generating proviral DNA,36 as is apparently the case for human immunodeficiency virus 1.37

making infection of the female germ line highly unlikely unless, of course, they are fertilized by a COVID-19 carrying spermatozoon

Why did you think they wanted to inject college kids?

also see https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32578263/

We performed this systematic review to evaluate the possibility of an impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on male fertility. SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells with the help of ACE2; therefore, testicular expression of ACE2 was analysed from transcriptome sequencing studies and our unpublished data. Literature suggested that SARS-CoV-1 (2002-2004 SARS) had a significant adverse impact on testicular architecture, suggesting a high possibility of the impact of SARS-CoV-2 as well. Out of two studies on semen samples from COVID-19 affected patients, one reported the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the semen samples while the other denied it, raising conflict about its presence in the semen samples and the possibility of sexual transmission. Our transcriptome sequencing studies on rat testicular germ cells showed ACE expression in rat testicular germ cells. We also found ACE2 expression in transcriptome sequencing data for human spermatozoa, corroborating its presence in the testicular germ cells. Transcriptome sequencing data from literature search revealed ACE2 expression in the germ, Sertoli and Leydig cells. The presence of ACE2 on almost all testicular cells and the report of a significant impact of previous SARS coronavirus on testes suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is highly likely to affect testicular tissue, semen parameters and male fertility.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-020-01757-0

Several studies have demonstrated the presence of viral RNA in the feces of patients affected by COVID-19, suggesting the possibility of viral transmission through the oralfecal route (Nouri‐Vaskeh & Alizadeh, 2020; Zhang et al., 2020). Furthermore, there is evidence proving that fecal tests continue to be positive even after the respiratory specimens become negative (Tian, Rong, Nian, & He, 2020).

Studies aimed at investigating the potential mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2 transmission and infection at the level of the oral cavity have shown that ACE2 is expressed by the mucosal epithelial cells. The expression of this molecule is higher at the tongue level than in gingival and buccal tissues, indicating it as a possible route of infection (Xu et al., 2020). Moreover, live viruses were detected in the saliva of infected individuals (To et al., 2020).

In order to explore the possibility of sexual transmission, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was tested in vaginal fluid and semen of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. In one study (Pan et al., 2020), Sars-CoV-2 was detected in semen samples of 34 Chinese men recovering from COVID-19 with milder symptoms. In two other studies, one in which 35 female COVID-19 patients were recruited and who came from different geographical areas of Wuhan (Cui et al., 2020) and another in which were 10 postmenopausal woman with severe COVID-19 were recruited (Qiu et al., 2020), Sars-CoV-2 was detected in vaginal fluids. In these studies, SARS-CoV-2 was not found either in semen or in vaginal fluids of positive cases.

This does not exclude the possibility of viral transmission through sexual behavior (e.g., oral/anal contacts). Indeed, viral particles may be transmitted through oral sex and use of saliva as a lubricant. This is supported, as previously described, by the shedding of viral particles through the saliva and the feces and the presence of ACE2 receptors on the epithelium lining the oral cavity and the rectum.

…Shut down Tinder.

Physicians should inform their patients about these risk behaviors in order to avoid further spreading of the virus. The importance of increasing awareness on less common transmission routes stems from the high number of contagious persons, including asymptomatic individuals and patients with doublenegative oro/nasopharyngeal swab, but still potentially contagious (persistent fecal elimination of the virus).

Public pensions reduce fertility

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1213215/

Socialism kills. All Marxism is anti-natal, it’s the only thing it has in common.
Hence, national socialism is fucking retarded, sorry. It doesn’t work. You can’t have a half-evil system. It makes people lazy, as we see:

A number of population scholars have asserted that social security programs such as old-age programs lead to decreased fertility levels because parents need not rely on children for “security” in old age. There is, however, a paucity of empirical data on the above. This paper analyzes 67 countries and shows that social security programs have a measurable negative effect on subsequent levels of fertility.

This might go down in history as the thing to doom the Boomers, demographically.

In fact, the social security programs appear to have as much of an independent impact on fertility as do the traditional correlates of fertility (infant mortality, education and per capita income).

Explains the sheer drop in fertility in places like Poland, and why places like Russia and China are currently bricking it.

Then you have fake Catholics like the French, fucking around and never marrying because there’s no stigma any longer. Socialism preserves a husk of civilization while hollowing out the core.

It’s popular for insecure morons to say higher education should be banned but it replaces ballrooms for the high IQ to meet one another. Education is K-select, that’s why Marxists have tried to destroy it. Would you rather they screw the local waitress and have dipshit kids? On your tax bill? Assortative mating must be enabled for a healthy, functioning society. Ban foreign students and there’s more room by far. Then you don’t have national security risks like the Chinese stealing missile data AMERICA.

College educated parents (yes, both) have higher IQ children. The right wing gets triggered over this and other facts where the universe doesn’t revolve around men (or women, but they don’t care there). As covered previously, most child IQ is inherited maternally. So we know it’s men to blame for fucking the dumb broads, who exhibit sexual selection like a leech being discerning in a blood bank. Stop fucking stupid women. At least, don’t be surprised when the kids are entitled douchebags. If your kids are stupid, and you think it isn’t you – it’s your choice of woman.

BBC: messing with your menses a ‘short term side effect’

I do love so dobbing them in.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-56901353

and so it begins

ERE WE GO

ERE WE GO

ERE WE GO

GM humans.

“We urgently need quality control to randomly require doctors to give 1 in 100 vaccine vials to a repository and someone like me could forensically analyze what’s in these vaccines.”

The walking petri dish GM biohazard theory

Papers please?

Passive inhaled mRNA vaccination for SARS-Cov-2, Wee Song Yeo and Qin Xiang Ng, Scientific Paper published January 2021

It could also qualify as an STD, remember ebola was found in semen too.

Paper: Abortifacient vaccine technology

Damage to FSH and LH could make someone permanently infertile including women. Those are key for supporting a pregnancy. Infertility in women can be indicated. Children of Men is set in England….

The characteristic sloughing of the endometrium caused by fucking with hCG levels is called a decidual cast.
It’s the reason some women (not all) with endometriosis can miscarry so often. They’ve weaponised it.

h/t Anonymous Conservative for gene therapy (convid) link, where I still comment sometimes to clarify, despite obstacles in my personal life preventing me from posting much here for personal safety.

https://montanadailygazette.com/2021/04/16/unvaccinated-women-report-miscarriages-after-interactions-with-vaccinated-people/

“After reading hundreds of testimonies, the Instagram user learned many women experienced desidual casts, the lining of the uterus falling out. A quick Google search of the term showed a spike in search results in January 2021, when the Covid-19 vaccines were being introduced.”

https://www.rubylove.com/post/2017/01/19/decidual-casts-and-menstruation

Endometriosis is a regenerative medical issue which involves the appearance of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, causing pelvic discomfort to be felt by the patient and in some cases, infertility. It has been discovered that the progesterone treatment used for endometriosis oftentimes leads to the formation of a decidual cast.

One of the most common contraceptives, forced on minors in the UK. They’re even telling virgins they ‘need’ it ‘just in case’, I had personal experience of shutting down those lies as a teen. I’m not taking shit with side effects and no longitudinal studies on fertility because my doctor assumes I’ll magically turn into a whore. That’s just insulting. Their only excuse after that was ‘period pains’ ….yes they were STILL trying to push it….. I was like…. I’ll stick to Ibuprofen, thanks? Progesterone causes PMT so if you’re wondering why so many modern women are bitchy….. it’s the progesterone only pill. I’ve had to drop friends after they started taking it. They became raging banshees. They suddenly hated men too. Pretty sure most SJWs are on it. Men on xenoestrogens exhibit PMT like symptoms, also those on steroids. So it isn’t just women being poisoned.

So HCG issues + progesterone = …….

Without endometriosis, it still occurs

The use of consolidated oral preventative pills may prompt the formation of decidual casts. There have been cases of dysfunctional uterine draining where the patient was prescribed a monophasic oral preventative, and an extensive decidual cast was discovered amid the treatment regimen. The same will happen in cases of treating oral pills for an adolescent menorrhagia. Medroxyprogesterone acetic acid derivation (DMPA) is an injectable type of prophylactic which has been demonstrated to cause the development and conveyance of decidual casts as well.

Things the men commenting on this wouldn’t know. Use it wisely.

Short and tall women are slutty

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/147470490900700405
h/t Dutton

I wish they’d look racially, but this explains the r-selected LBFMs.

https://www.academia.edu/32121636/Height_among_Women_is_Curvilinearly_Related_to_Life_History_Strategy
Tall women I have noted, like Tilda Swinton seem to be left-wing in an openly aggressive, manly fashion.
Short women tend to be left-wing in a subversive fashion, i.e. infantilising rape gangs and cheating on their simp of a husband as a “poly”, the type to know they can’t play the tall woman’s game of leftism so fakes femininity to extract resources (from State, Church, simp). Assuming a short woman is more feminine is statistically wrong. She’ll be more likely to cheat from insecurity.

re Keller, M. (2013). The Genetic Correlation Between Height and IQ. PLOS ONE.
I already knew taller men are smarter and kinder to women, they’re protective. That’s why women like them, not the height per se.
Short men view women as social competition so are more likely to bully, gaslight, verbally abuse and hit them. They think domination makes up for lack of dominance. It’s moral cowardice, “pick on someone your own size” as they used to say.
Nature made taller men healthier because they’re generally better people.
Misogyny is a known factor of inferiority and most of them (with vitriol aimed in-race) are shorter than the women or average man, so subconsciously hate their mother.
Height in a man is broadly like a human’s peacock tail. It develops as a signal of genetic quality which cannot be faked and demonstrates low mutation load. There’s plenty of time before the growth plates fuse to get adequate nutrition and exercise so either their parents hate them (and parents hate more ugly children or products of other unions) or they are burdened with so many mutations it’s a small wonder they weren’t miscarried (and probably would have been without modern medicine).
One big reason modern humans are uglier is IVF, the other being maternal care for parents who simply don’t deserve it.
Read into that what you will.
Maybe the solution is more abortion, but more eugenic abortion.

Average height women have “more reproductive success” (Nettle, 2002) – cited top paper.
This also applies to the third world (they cite). Perhaps the fetish for pedomorphic women (short women, short limbs) is an r-select feature?
Men always prefer women a few inches shorter than them as a norm (so probably same class, assortative) but “markedly” short (as the paper puts it) is abnormal and suggests r-type breeding preferences (young and done, no investment).
Tall women are less symmetrical, although the way they write that sentence up is vague to spare blushes.
Medium height women have “highest mate value” – more studies needed on this. What does that actually mean? Just fertility? Beauty? Personality? IQ? What? Good family?
Jealous women were “taller or shorter than average” – damn, dare you to do a cross-racial study, that would be funny. 
So if you don’t want a harpy guys, select an average height woman (for her own race, presumably, also your own?).

If you wanna be cucked, women, marry a short man,

-or men, marry a short or tall woman.

Short is clearly a non sequitur to feminine, as it states short women are more jealous (along with tall women) of “feminine” beauty.

Average women are more repulsed by masculine women but… isn’t everyone? Can you guess my height by that?

I actually thought that was just everyone.

A few screencaps:

  • Humans are K-selected as a species, believe nobody who says otherwise. No, men are not meant to “sow oats”, it’s degenerate. The quality men don’t do that. Reputation evolved to explain this commentary on your genetic quality.
  • K-types are MORE reproductively successful in the long run, as you’d expect. Evolution is about the long run and who actually reproduces, not just “screws” in completely sterile fashion.
  • Married isn’t always better for the children if the parents (or one) are unstable, in loyalty or sanity.
  • Problem children come from problematic parents.
  • If your child is a slut, it’s your fault.
  • Sex is a physical distraction from growing up mentally, usually escaping from childhood trauma.
  • r/K isn’t really a choice, it’s mostly genetics. Posing as the other type won’t work.
  • 65% genetically heritable. Your kids will be just as slutty as you are, whoever you marry.
  • Hot women can hold out for marriage. Not – cannot.
  • Women are more than morally offended when you treat them as promiscuous (when they’re not) because you’re also calling them ugly.
  • If you want a spouse who can pair bond neurologically and raise your children as a good role model, don’t marry a former slut.
  • Better spouses are genetically fitter spouses (average women, tall men).

Pretty fertile

A woman’s face is the true indicator of fertility, it isn’t really nearly as amenable to later changes at the gym, at the surgeon or by diet. It’s a true signal, trust it over the body if there is a conflict. If a woman has an average face for her race and a “great” body, the body is fake. It must be, because they’re supposed to have developed at the same time, with the same nutrients and genes and hormones. A highly dimorphic body would also produce a highly dimorphic face by the same conditions.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234055814_Cues_to_fertility_Perceived_attractiveness_and_facial_shape_predict_reproductive_success

slight repost for SEO

“Attractive facial features in women are assumed to signal fertility, but whether facial attractiveness predicts reproductive success in women is still a matter of debate. We investigated the association between facial attractiveness at young adulthood and reproductive life history-number of children and pregnancies-in women of a rural community. For the analysis of reproductive success, we divided the sample into women who used contraceptives and women who did not. Introducing two-dimensional geometric morphometric methodology, we analysed which specific characteristics in facial shape drive the assessment of attractiveness and covary with lifetime reproductive success. A set of 93 (semi)landmarks was digitized as two-dimensional coordinates in postmenopausal faces. We calculated the degree of fluctuating asymmetry and regressed facial shape on facial attractiveness at youth and reproductive success. Among women who never used hormonal contraceptives, we found attractive women to have more biological offspring than less attractive women. These findings are not affected by sociodemographic variables. Postmenopausal faces corresponding to high reproductive success show more feminine features facial characteristics previously assumed to be honest cues to fertility. Our findings support the notion that facial attractiveness at the age of mate choice predicts reproductive success and that facial attractiveness is based on facial characteristics, which seem to remain stable until postmenopausal age.”

This is how men traditionally found a good wife in a time of petticoats. The face, neck, shoulders and arms show you the rest of her body. Their books emphasize these as important* and their fashions allowed a plunging neckline to better judge fitness. It’s also why they hated make-up, not for the flush but the drawing-on of superior features. This still happens, largely with the midface and eye area. If a girl draws on her nose, just say no.

*They were incredibly bitchy about scrawny, ugly necks and shoulders up until the Edwardian Era. Kiera Knightley’s man bod would be the epitome of ugly. They wanted tapered full shoulders and neck.

That came back in the 1950s, for similar post-war fertility need reasons.

Note the thighs match the neck, so no thin necks either. Lithe arms, nice legs. It’s a rule. They considered the neck and wrists feminine and seriously, what woman nowadays goes to the surgeon about those? It’s a clear signal, still.

Breadth of hips imitated in elbows, palms and knee joints. It’s the same genetic input. A woman with large hips and tiny knee joints has had surgery. The knees develop before puberty to accommodate broad hips. At puberty, they can get even bigger as the legs get longer, so there’s no woman with long legs, regardless of height, and tiny knee joints. It’s impossible, biologically. Otherwise, they’d have biomechanical issues with walking. There’s an angle I can’t be bothered to look up produced by broader hips down to the knee joint and when it exceeds a certain level or gradient the woman can’t actually walk, literal mobility issues. The shoulders aren’t broad in bones (that’s masculine) nor are the feet in women. Long feet are a direct metric of height to stay upright, it’s a hinge but slender feet are the feminine marker and foot-binding’s purpose was narrowness. A woman with broad shoulders and narrow, bound feet has trouble walking. Men also have broader feet to match their shoulders. They throw a lot of weight forward.

A gamine type body, with one or two pleasing features (e.g. just a small waist and long legs) would also produce deficits in maternal instinct and capacity. Caveat emptor. This is important for men selecting a wife, as opposed to a quick shag (what society tells you). If you have a choice of two women, pick the nubile one.

Curvy women may sag, yes, but they don’t come to resemble a man, especially after menopause (see study above).

I’d like to see a study of husband’s desire for his wife by body type. Imagine the outrage. Apples/Naturals would be the worst. Just avoid women with broader shoulder bones than hips. You can tell at a distance.

Healthy shoulders and such are ignored nowadays with dire sub-fertility consequences. Babies eat that fat.

Note, a daintier wrist because the elbow join is broader.

The entire body is a signal, T&A is a ((distraction.)) Padding will do those.

Note the emphasis. That was behind Marilyn’s charm. Victorian body in 50s Americana clothing.

Nowadays we have knee length skirts as normal but very low necklines as odd or even offensive. It’s possible to derive fitness better from the legs, like a deer, really, or a horse, but most men have lost the skill or drive, fetishising tights and heels instead. Upper class men still judge by and fetishize the legs and were behind the rationing shift in fashions to display them. Middle class men fixate on backsides but not hips, which would be a superior indicator as breadth. Lower orders fixate on breasts, high time preference indicated. The woman herself may already be pregnant.

Cognitive ability and fertility in Swedes

aka a select population of white people.

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rspb.2019.0359

We examine the relationship between cognitive ability and childbearing patterns in contemporary Sweden using administrative register data. The topic has a long history in the social sciences and has been the topic of a large number of studies, many reporting a negative gradient between intelligence and fertility. We link fertility histories to military conscription tests with intelligence scores for all Swedish men born 1951–1967. We find a positive relationship between intelligence scores and fertility, and this pattern is consistent across the cohorts we study. The relationship is most pronounced for the transition to a first child, and men with the lowest categories of IQ scores have the fewest children. Using fixed effects models, we additionally control for all factors that are shared by siblings, and after such adjustments, we find a stronger positive relationship between IQ and fertility.

Furthermore, we find a positive gradient within groups at different levels of education. Compositional differences of this kind are therefore not responsible for the positive gradient we observe—instead, the relationship is even stronger after controlling for both educational careers and parental background factors. In our models where we compare brothers to one another, we find that, relative to men with IQ 100, the group with the lowest category of cognitive ability have 0.56 fewer children, and men with the highest category have 0.09 more children.

There are a lot of new readers who don’t seem to know how I roll.

  1. I am right.
  2. When in doubt, see rule one.

My assumptions have statistical backing. Read up or FO.

Oh, look, it’s the military! [coughs in K-type]

https://disenchantedscholar.wordpress.com/2019/08/07/the-eugenic-economy/

My brain doesn’t instantly become thick because you dislike an opinion it produces.

If you’re not smart enough to know what’s science, what’s speculative and what’s satire, go elsewhere.

I’ve spent years proving myself on here, with a variety of good predictions (the refugee crisis, African demographics, Brexit, Trump etc). Your incredulity is not required.

Link: Outbreeding Depression

https://majorityrights.com/weblog/comments/genetic_structure_and_outbreeding_depression

This phenomenon can occur in two ways. One way is by the “swamping” of locally adapted genes in a wild population by straying from, for example, a hatchery population. In this case, adaptive gene complexes in wild populations are simply being displaced by the immigration of genes that are adapted to the hatchery environment or to some other locality. For example, selection in one population might produce a large body size, whereas in another population small body size might be more advantageous. Gene flow between these populations may lead to individuals with intermediate body sizes, which may not be adaptive in either population. A second way outbreeding depression can occur is by the breakdown of biochemical or physiological compatibilities between genes in the different populations. Within local, isolated populations, alleles are selected for their positive, overall effects on the local genetic background.

Due to nonadditive gene action, the same genes may have rather different average effects in different genetic backgrounds—hence, the potential evolution of locally coadapted gene complexes. Offspring between parents from two different populations may have phenotypes that are not good for any environment. It is important to keep in mind that these two mechanisms of outbreeding depression can be operating at the same time. However, determining which mechanism is more important in a particular population is very difficult.

beige people, blandifying selection traits

In other words, genetic structure, aka, genetic correlation structure is more than additional ethnic genetic interest—it can be function, hence loss of that structure results in loss of function resulting in outbreeding depression.

….

Evidence for outbreeding depression is much less extensive than evidence for inbreeding depression, but outbreeding depression is nevertheless a general genetic phenomenon. One problem in studying outbreeding depression is the number of generations that may occur before outbreeding depression reveals itself. The effects of outbreeding enhancement due to the masking of deleterious alleles and outbreeding depression due to hybrid breakdown may cancel each other in the first generation after crossing individuals from two populations. So the effects of outbreeding depression may not be apparent for a few generations.

They just know that inbreeding is more of a problem than outbreeding—and that’s why they’re “justified” in imposing outbreeding on populations with government force and technologically amplified panmixia.

Quotes and sarcasm, deserved.

https://majorityrights.com/weblog/comments/kinship_and_fertility

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/319/5864/813

This paper demonstrates that, in an analysis of Icelandic couples born between 1800 and 1965, there is a “significant positive association” between kinship and fertility; maximal reproductive success was observed for couples with kinship relatedness at the level of third or fourth cousins.

The authors conclude that these differences in reproductive success (i.e. fitness*) have a “biological basis” – that is, a genetic basis.

Strikingly, however, our results show that couples related at the degree of third to fourth cousins exhibited the greatest reproductive success.

In order to maximize fitness, therefore, one doesn’t have to move that far from the endogamous extreme.  Just a few rungs upward on the kinship distance ladder produces benefits superior to that of both extremes.  It’s totally irresponsible and mendacious to use the fitness costs of obvious incest to argue for reckless hybridization (**) with the most genetically distant organisms with which individuals are cross-fertile.

“It could be argued that in human populations there is a point of balance between the disadvantages associated with inbreeding versus those with outbreeding,” said Alan Bittles, director of the Center for Human Genetics at Edith Cowan University in Western Australia.

Therefore, not only is it unlikely – as has been asserted on this blog previously – that any putative “hybrid vigor” can compensate for lost parental kinship, but it’s also highly unlikely that “hybrid vigor” exists to any significant extent for most human populations past the “second cousin” level.  Defining fitness in the proper biological sense, the recent deCODE findings suggest that increased hybridity past an optimal point may in fact reduce reproductive fitness above and beyond the real losses in genetic interests due to foregone parental kinship.

From the Udry study discussed by J. Richards in a previous blog post, to the lack of any evidence of enhanced reproductive success of mixed couples and their offspring, to these latest deCODE findings that reproductive success may be maximized by closer kinship, it would seem that when in doubt, one should err on the side of increased endogamy (to the level of “third cousins” only, of course).

Duh.

When even deCODE – which decided to sift through James Watson’s ancestry and make public their dubious findings because of a politically correct distaste at what they perceived as Watson’s (presumably “racist”) comments on African intelligence levels – publishes findings that show a biologically based enhanced fitness for mating at high levels of kinship relatedness, then one must wonder how any scientifically objective individual could possibly still peddle the idea that cross-racial mating is somehow a biologically preferable choice.

Fetishes.

An important point: it’s really not so important that high kinship actually enhances reproductive fitness, or the mechanisms whereby that occurs.  More important is the lack of evidence for the contrary view: that increasing levels of exogamy leads to “hybrid vigor” and enhanced fitness.  The findings from this study constitute yet more evidence that “hybrid vigor” is not an important force – if it is one at all – for humans.

It doesn’t exist in humans, we’re not racehorses.

Prized, rare (or unique) traits like genius, maybe, but that’s kin-related, subrace max.

In the absence of such “hybrid vigor,” parental kinship takes “center stage.”  The possibility that endogamy may actually raise fitness per se, as suggested by deCODE, is just “icing on the cake,” hammering home the point that mating “between the lines” of genetically distant groups is not required for enhanced fitness.

*Reproductive success and the maintenance/expansion of distinctive genetic information are the reasonable measures of biological fitness, not whether “Tiger Woods smells better on the golf course,” or any other inane commentaries that spew forth from the addled “minds” of certain hysterical proponents of objectively maladaptive inter-racial couplings.
An example of maladaptive inter-racial hybridization is found here.  Again, that’s not even considering reproductive fitness or parental kinship, but merely negative health consequences of introducing one race’s genes into another race’s genome.

**Responsible researchers and conservationists are beginning to understand the consequences of reckless hybridization and outbreeding depression.  Some quotes, and my comments:

the available data suggest that risks of outbreeding, particularly in the second generation, are on par with the risks of inbreeding.

If there’s no advantage for hybridization in the long run, then what’s the point?  Note that this paper is talking about decisions to “intentionally hybridize” animals – we are not concerned with parental kinship when considering animals, only the relative “quality” of the resultant phenotypes.  Even with that, hybridization is questionable.  However, we are humans, and as such, have concerns above and beyond these considerations – such as kinship issues.  So, everything said about hybridization in animals holds true for humans, but, for humans, the underlying cost of hybridization – foregone parental kinship – is something additional that concerns us in dealing with mating choices.

Meanwhile, managers can minimize the risks of both inbreeding and outbreeding by using intentional hybridization only for populations clearly suffering from inbreeding depression…

Yes.  This is the conservative approach.  While Ashkenazi Jews can be said to “clearly suffer” from “inbreeding depression” the same cannot be said of European ethnic groups, or Europeans as a whole (or, for that matter, Africans, Asians, etc.).

The low IQs of Eastern Europeans are inbreeding depression.

Again – and this cannot be stressed enough – that’s not even considering parental kinship (or genetic interests in general).  The Ashkenazim may have preservationist considerations that may lead them to reject hybridization independent of whatever “benefits” genetic mixing may bring, and the cost/benefit ratio may very well favor that rejection.  However, given that Europeans are not “clearly suffering” from “inbreeding depression” there is no reason to follow Ziv’s advice and destroy our genetic interests for non-existent “benefits” to “solve” a non-existent “problem.”

Destroy yourself now because you might, at some point, destroy yourself!

….nah

….maximizing the genetic and adaptive similarity between populations…

In other words, if, for some reason, hybridization is decided upon, one should pick for the hybridization a population as genetically similar to the original population as possible.  One does not pick the most genetically distant populations possible!

…and testing the effects of hybridization for at least two generations whenever possible.

to ensure fertility, not the liger issue

Yes – instead of promoting widespread human panmixia based upon how Tiger Woods might smell on the golf course.  Of course, one may look at highly admixed populations throughout the world and use those for “testing the effects.”  Even leaving kinship concerns out of the picture, the results with respect to positive traits have not been encouraging.

While the data on outbreeding depression are dwarfed by those on inbreeding depression, the few studies that exist suggest that concerns over outbreeding should be taken seriously, as the effects can in some cases be as damaging as severe inbreeding.

Yes, taken seriously, instead of making juvenile comments about which male celebrity may be better able to “induce orgasm” in which female celebrity.  Again, given the costs for humans of foregone kinship, where are the “benefits?”

As a start, managers should strive to do no harm.

What should we think of those who, seemingly, wish to maximize harm?

That is, we should intentionally hybridize populations only when there is hard evidence that a population is suffering from inbreeding depression.

Speculation about how Tiger Woods might smell after a round of golf does not constitute said “hard evidence.”  There is no “hard evidence” that European populations (or Africans, Asians, etc.) are “suffering” from inbreeding depression.  Other small populations may be “suffering;” in that case, let those groups decide to balance the costs and benefits of hybridization – and a “pro” choice hardly means choosing the most distant groups possible as mates.

…low levels of gene flow are predicted to have disastrous effects on populations vulnerable to outbreeding (Edmands & Timmerman 2003).

Yes.

As a final postscript, readers may be interested in an alternative viewpoint with respect to the function of sexual reproduction – which stresses species and chromosomal stability over “increased genetic diversity.”

By diversity they mean the healthy range.

Unhealthy is culled by natural selection.

Also:

“Well, South Asians are the product of mixing between several Caucasoid and Asiatic people, and problems with their racial classification notwithstanding, the fact remains that European Caucasoids and East Asians clearly belong to different races.  In a classic example offered by Arthur Jensen, different bands of a rainbow blend into each other, yet this does not mean that a rainbow doesn’t contain different color bands that are easily distinguished from each other, except at the boundaries. ” marriage post (so not really gene heavy)

Genetic distance studies. Forensic skull analysis. Actually, you can clearly see group and case boundaries.

Female medieval English skeletons study

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00766097.2015.1119392

“However, the period of ‘youth’ in medieval England, before the achievement of full social adulthood, may have extended well past physical adolescence, and the age of 25 years is often used as the cut-off point.14″

Louder for the pedos at the back.

“but for most medieval young women physical adulthood did not equate to social adulthood.16″

Obviously.

“Instead, puberty may have marked the beginning of the phase of ‘maidenhood’ rather than adulthood.17”

We now call it teenagehood but I prefer that name for women.

“Lifestyle changes for the teenager, in particular the onset of formal work, may have marked a further step away from childhood, particularly if this involved a move away from the parental home. That the 14th-century poll tax was levied on all those aged 14 years and above suggests that young women were expected to be earning their own money by this age.18

HA. Yeah, the guys who say women should sit at home all day twiddling their thumbs waiting to marry are 1. wrong and 2. have put too much stock in middle-class novelist Austen.

Like today;
“Although exact numbers are impossible to calculate, it is clear from the documentary evidence that a significant proportion of young women migrated to urban centres such as London and York to obtain employment, most commonly a service position.19″

Exactly like today:
“This move would have been a dramatic, and potentially a traumatic, change in lifestyle for young women. Although it may have brought greater freedom and responsibility, it does not seem to have conferred full adult status; there is evidence that young women in service were always viewed as ‘girls’ regardless of their age, just as young men were not viewed as full adults before the completion of an apprenticeship contract.20″

So they didn’t marry for money, they were already economically independent.

If you actually read history and here, forensics.

“in reality, marriage at such a young age was largely restricted to the nobility, with the average age at marriage in the general population estimated at 20–25 years,22
and perhaps even later following the Black Death.23
This would provide a very late age of achievement of ‘adulthood’ by modern standards. However, although marriage was very much the expected path a significant minority of women — perhaps around 15% — never married.24″

Who is dumb enough to have never looked this up?

I keep seeing Americans who make sweeping fictional statements about what ‘we’ Europeans did and it’s like… no. That’s never happened. Citation? Statistics? They are liars. Even in their revenge fantasies of ‘oppressing’ women from work (oh joy, welfare on the backs of random men? can’t win, can we?) then they assume all women would marry off (literally never happened in human history), all women are fertile and their children all magically survive (LOL) and that all men want to marry and got to choose who (LOL no). The economy also needs young workers, part of the immigrant problem is caused by not allowing teens to work.

They’re in bloody La La Land.

Extended maturation is K-selected, the men and women were tougher as a result.

Just realised my grandmothers might be in here.

Almost certainly. Yeah, don’t lie about my nana/s.

“Alongside these dramatic but infrequent events, most young medieval females would have experienced everyday hardships and hazards.”

” The average femoral diaphysis length recorded for the medieval 14-year-old females (354 mm) is closest to that recorded by Maresh for 20th-century 10-year-olds (348 mm). The average figures for medieval 15- and 16-year-old females (365 mm and 366 mm respectively) are still lower than for 20th-century 11-year-olds (367 mm). These data suggest that growth in medieval England fell well below modern standards, perhaps reflecting the lower standard of living medieval children would have experienced.”

If it was that hard on the girls, you don’t wanna go back to that, guys.

“It does not necessarily follow that medieval women were considerably shorter than their modern counterparts. When compared to dental formation, epiphyseal fusion in the female adolescent skeletons from our sample was delayed by two to three years in comparison to modern standards, allowing them to ‘catch-up’ their growth during the pubertal growth spurt.27 This pattern of extended growth appears to have been common in the medieval period;”

The English are tough.

” Only very slight differences in stature were noted between the women of Lincolnshire, London and Gloucester, although the London females had greater diversity in adult height.”

“This may suggest that girls who experienced poorer conditions for childhood and adolescent growth were more likely to die around or before the age of 25 years.”

K-selection. Stunted or shorter women likelier to die. Same with men.

“It has been suggested that female height may have suffered in comparison to male height in medieval Europe due to preferential feeding and care of male children,33causing greater sexual dimorphism in growth and final stature between the sexes. By comparison, the average stature of young men at our sites (156 individuals) was 169.5 cm (5 ft 7 in). This may simply be the result of sexual dimorphism as such comparisons are similar for modern western populations, and therefore does not support the hypothesis that girls experienced poorer nutrition and living standards than boys.”

K-types invest well in all offspring.

“According to these indicators, it appears that all of the individuals studied had entered the pubertal growth spurt by the age of 14 years. In the modern western world girls tend to begin puberty around the age of 10 years,37 and so this result would fit with modern expectations. “

Puberty begins then takes a few years, 14-18/19 matches what I read elsewhere about menarche (posted here).

The ‘modern’ data is skewed by non-whites, especially Asians and Africans, with much lower menarches.

The African is nine, measured in America, as I recall.

“More information can be gained from examining the epiphyseal fusion of the hand phalanges, a process known to occur during the deceleration phase of the pubertal growth spurt, and correlated with first menstruation in modern females. Although the age at which this event occurred varied in our sample just as among modern girls, fusion appears to have occurred most frequently between 15 and 17 years (Fig 2). At 14 years, only 36% of girls display fusing or fused hand phalangeal epiphyses, but by 17 years this figure has risen to 84%.”

Still not 100%, K-types have a later range of menarche.

“A second skeletal event known to be associated with first menstruation, the ossification of the iliac crest of the ilium, was also only found in girls aged at 15 years or over. Interestingly, this is roughly in line with the average age at menarche suggested by the few available documentary sources.38 An average age at menarche of between 15 and 16 years would be much later than the modern British average of just under 13 years.39In addition to their shorter stature, this finding adds weight to the argument that environmental factors such a deficient diet and disease were having a negative impact on medieval female growth and development. Interestingly, however, this average age at menarche is below the age of 17 years recorded for mid-19th century females,40indicating that urban conditions were not as detrimental as those experienced during rapid industrialisation.”

The female body takes YEARS to develop, periods often occur too early to carry a child to term. Hollywood lies, because it’s full of creeps.

Men shouldn’t be discussing a reproductive system they cannot understand.

“The evidence for medieval England, however, shows a delay in the achievement of this milestone, which appears to have fallen between 17 and 18 years for most girls, based on 247 individuals with this bone surviving (Fig 3). Complete fusion of the iliac crest of the ilium, which signals the end of pelvic growth, was only seen in a minority of women aged below 20 years, based on the 277 individuals “

They’re K-types, it isn’t a delay, it’s NORMAL. Modern people are aberrant.

17-18 periods stabilize (this takes years, I have spoken to doctors about it).

The pelvis keeps growing to carry and support a child though, only when this is done (about 21, spinal plate fusion) is the woman actually sexually mature with a low risk of still birth, miscarriage or death.

Modern medicine is allowing a lot of non-white thots to survive a process Nature is telling them is fatal. Do not confuse that with Nature’s approval.

These data suggest that puberty was extended into the very late teens for young medieval women, pushing back the timing of achievement of full physical adulthood. This extended period of physical adolescence indicates that living standards for young medieval women, at least in the urban and small town environments, were considerably poorer than those of modern British adolescents. Some variation between the sites was noted, with pubertal development most advanced in the small town of Barton-upon-Humber, and most delayed in the urban hospital cemetery of St Mary Spital, London. This presumably reflects the harsher living conditions experienced by the girls living and working in London.”

Nah, hard work and low fat diet. Treating the women like men will delay them more.

“It is believed that the demographic changes caused by the Black Death may have led to increased opportunities for many women to migrate and work.43

Although less documentary evidence is available for women than for men, there is evidence for female servants much younger than 12 years in urban households,44and some migration may have occurred at a very young age. Although legislation was passed to regulate the minimum age for apprentices — 13 years in the early 14th century, rising to 16 years by the 15th century — apprenticeships were rarely available for girls, and no such legal minimum age existed for servants or casual workers. The available evidence suggests that girls started formal work away from home at a younger age than boys.45

This concept of female laziness is really American.

” a degree of personal freedom; the latter is perhaps most clearly indicated by the large number of migrant women recorded as making ‘merchet’ payments for the right to choose their own marriage partner.46 On the other hand, moving away from home, particularly to a town or city, could bring with it new challenges and hazards, such as sexual predation, mistreatment, injury and disease.”

Americans are so wrong it hurts.

” this result indicates that much greater numbers of women living and dying in London were actually suffering from tuberculosis.”

“Again, the numbers are too small for statistical analysis, but this may provide further evidence for girls having a more indoor lifestyle than boys in the medieval period.”

Forcing women to sit at home is literally bad for their health.

We aren’t mole people.

On the whole, the women actually had it harder than men.

“There can be little doubt that this extensive workload was exhausting for many women, but osteological study can provide further direct evidence for the impact that this had on young women’s bodies.

A wide range of trauma has been recorded on the skeletons of young medieval women, including fractures of the upper limb and finger bones, cranium and ribs, lower limbs and feet.57 However, the prevalence of fractures of each type is lower than among males, suggesting that girls were exposed to (or exposed themselves to) fewer risks of injury than boys.”

We hadn’t evolved for that labour, men did.

“It is notable that, of the 48 cases of trauma reported in the grey and published literature, cranial, rib and jaw injuries, suggestive of interpersonal violence, only started to appear in women aged 17–25 years, comprising 18.6% of the 43 fractures for this age group. This suggests that the risk of violence rose as girls turned into young women, perhaps reflecting domestic violence after marriage.58″

That would explain the death rate. Stress and fractures – no healthy baby.

There is one area of the skeleton where young women seem to have suffered virtually the same frequency of fractures as young men, the vertebral column. By far the highest prevalence rate for vertebral fractures (4.7%, n = 9) was found at St Mary Spital suggesting that female workers in the capital, or at least the poor workers buried in this hospital cemetery, were undertaking the activities most likely to cause spinal injury. The majority of these fractures were compression fractures, often caused by falls from a height, although avulsion and hyperflexion injuries were also present.59

The men sitting at a desk in an apprenticeship had it easy.

“Schmorl’s nodes are common, often asymptomatic, depressions caused by herniation of the nucleus pulposus on the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral bodies. Their aetiology is complex, although spinal trauma caused by vigorous activity and flexion and extension of the spine is most commonly associated with their formation.60 The age of their occurrence is not clear, but they generally appear before the age of 18 years.61Plomp et al argued that males are more susceptible to these lesions due to the size and shape of their vertebrae.62 In our study, medieval women had a higher prevalence of the lesions). Analysis of the location of Schmorl’s nodes on the vertebrae revealed that the lumbar vertebrae were affected far more often among women, and the central thoracic vertebrae among men. This mirrors vertebral fractures where in the women all of the fractures occurred in the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, while in young men the central thoracic vertebrae were affected. This may suggest different activities; strain on the lumbar vertebrae, in particular, may be caused by bending and lifting.63″

aka back breaking labour, which could cause…

“Further evidence for stress being placed on the spines of young medieval women is provided by cases of spondylolysis. This describes the partial separation of the inferior facets on the neural arch from the vertebral body, usually between the ages of 10–12 years. The condition results from microtrauma in low grade stress on the lower back due to bending and lifting strains, or a fall from a height,64 but may have an underlying congenital cause. This injury was present in 4.4% of the female skeletons examined. This is higher than the prevalence of this condition found by the authors among young medieval males (2.9%), although the numbers involved were too small for statistical analysis. Again, the area involved is the lumbar region of the vertebral column. In addition, three young women, two aged at around 21 years and one at 22–25 years, display early degenerative joint disease of the vertebral column.”

Forcing women into labour like that kills them, reminder.

What emerges from the osteological evidence is that the workload of many young medieval women appears to have been literally backbreaking, and these early injuries may be expected to have led to significant back problems and pain in later life. It seems likely that these early spinal problems were caused primarily by carrying heavy loads at a time when the spine was still forming and vulnerable. Research from the grey and published literature reveals that rates of spinal injury were higher in urban than rural women65 and suggests that the workload of the young migrant women in service was harder than that of the young women who remained in the country or in small towns with their families. For example, the prevalence of vertebral fractures, spondylolysis and Schmorl’s nodes was lowest at Barton-upon-Humber, a wealthy small town.66″

Marriage, Sexual Activity and Childbirth

There is considerable evidence to suggest that marriage was a defining moment in the medieval female life course, marking the transition into true social adulthood.67 It is notable, however, that there was a significant gap between the legal age at marriage (12 years) and the average age at marriage (20–25 years even before the Black Death) in medieval England.68 The new analysis of pubertal development in medieval England discussed above suggests that the average age at menarche was 15–16 years. Full fertility, in terms of the likelihood of conception, carrying a healthy pregnancy to term and surviving childbirth, would only have followed several years after menarche with the completion of pelvic growth,69 which in our medieval sample appears to have been rare before the age of 19 years.

aka what I already typed, dammit

The fact that many young medieval women would not have been fertile before their 20s may be one reason for the relatively late average age of marriage during this period.70 It also suggests that marriage at the legal minimum age of 12 years would rarely have been fruitful, and any pregnancy that did ensue would have carried significant risks for the mother. We know of several medieval legal cases of the marriage of young girls where the ‘physical readiness for marriage’ of the girl in question was debated.71

This don’t go to college because you get periods thing from America is pig ignorant on female anatomy.

There is evidence to suggest, however, that the majority of cases of marriage before 15 years were confined to the nobility.72Today, girls of higher socio-economic status, with a considerably better standard of life, mature earlier than average. For example, high caste girls in 20th-century India have an average age at menarche over a year younger than low caste girls.73 The average age at menarche for noble girls in medieval England may therefore have been younger than the average age of 15–16 years described above.

more r-selected by men, explains eventual decadence and homosexuality rates, especially in the French

Even so, a pregnancy before the completion of pelvic development would have been dangerous; a famous example of this is provided by Margaret Beaufort, who appears to have been rendered sterile by a difficult first birth (of the future king Henry VII) at the age of just 13 years.74 An understanding of these risks is demonstrated by several contemporary authors,75 and was reflected in the Jewish rule that contraception (banned by Christian teaching) could be used to prevent pregnancy if the bride were too young to safely bear a child.767

The guys trying to force women to reproduce young would ironically render their own wife sterile via their stupidity. Good riddance. The Lord works in mysterious ways.

In theory, marriage coincided with sexual initiation for young women, and if the Church’s remonstrations to remain celibate until marriage were universally followed, it would indicate a relatively late age of sexual initiation. In reality, premarital sex among betrothed couples seems to have been common,77

that links to this study, no, they weren’t slutty

seems*

no

and sex with other partners, in not all cases consensual, was far from rare.

Are you really counting rape?

Evidence for this is provided by the erratic enforcement of ‘legerwite’ or ‘leyrwite’ fines on serf women who engaged in premarital sex.78

What about the men.

Premarital sex is thought to have been particularly common among young girls and women living away from home, for example in service roles, due to the greater freedom and availability of partners as well as the risk of sexual predation or pimping from employers.79 The sexual exploitation of girls in service appears to have been a frequent problem based on the legal record,80 and many young women must have lost their virginity in these circumstances. The extensive focus of many writers on admonishing young women to stay celibate until marriage may be taken as further evidence that premarital sex was seen (at least for women) as a significant societal problem.

Rape isn’t sleeping around, WTF.

Pedophiles raping virgins don’t really count as premarital sex, a choice, does it?

Two aspects of osteological analysis may shed light on sexual activity among young medieval women. The first is a sexually transmitted disease. Venereal syphilis, a treponemal disease, affects the skeleton in its tertiary stage, causing distinctive skeletal lesions.81 From the end of the 15th century, syphilis is believed to have been endemic in urban areas of England, although recent work has suggested that it may have been present at a much earlier date.82

Men spread that, sailors caught that. Your point?

If a virgin woman married a man with it, she’d get it. That can happen after marriage.

These female authors really want to present all women throughout history as sluts. Cui bono?

Among the 14–25 year old female individuals examined, four probable cases of treponemal disease were recorded, based on the presence of characteristic gummatous lesions in the cranium or long bones.83 Three of these were found in the young women from London (Fig 5), and one was found in York, at St Helen-on-the-Walls. One further case is known from Blackfriars, Gloucester;84 no cases were identified in the rural or small town sites consulted in the wider survey. The two youngest women to show signs of treponemal disease were aged at just 16 years. It is difficult to rule out congenital syphilis in these cases, as the presentation of the two conditions can be very similar, although none of these skeletons display the typical dental deformations of congenital syphilis.

So their fathers were sluts, so?

If the disease is the venereal form of treponemal disease, or syphilis, this would suggest the girls were very young when first infected. Syphilis generally takes several years to cause such destruction in the skeleton.85 Although the number of cases recorded is small, given that only 10–20% of individuals with tertiary syphilis experience skeletal involvement, and that skeletal lesions take several years to develop,86 it seems likely that much greater numbers of young women were affected by this disease.

To imply they wanted to be raped by syphilitic men is a bridge too far though.

The spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis was exacerbated by the problem of prostitution in medieval towns and cities. Karras argues that regulations of the Guilds limited women’s access to the normal labour market, forcing them to turn to prostitution out of necessity.87

Assuming that was a mistake.

There is little direct evidence that apprentices were procured as prostitutes, but one extant record from London City and Ecclesiastical Court (ad 1423) attests that one Alison Boston took apprentices who she hired out for the ‘horrible vice of lechery’.88 There are also accounts of men taking young girls (invenculae) to the London stews and selling them as prostitutes, suggesting the types of danger faced by young unskilled immigrant women. Goldberg89 cites the famous references from medieval York in ad 1482 that place prostitutes within the legal realm of ‘lepers’ and pigs in the hazards they caused for the local population.

Enslaved children.

She does not discuss the age at which women may have turned to prostitution, but suggests widows and daughters of labourers, known as ‘spinsters’ and ‘seamstresses’ (sempsters), needed to work several jobs to make ends meet, including petty theft, illegal ale retailing and prostitution. Goldberg argues that although full-time, ‘professional’ prostitutes were rare, many women were forced into occasional prostitution in hard times.90

Contradiction, Goldberg.

also why we have the welfare state

This would have been a particular risk for a migrant girl away from the safety of her family.91 Although it is impossible to state that any of the young medieval women examined were forced into this profession, this must be considered in the cases where possible syphilis is recorded.

No shit, nobody would choose that. The excuses these women make for rape are appalling.

A second consequence of sexual activity, pregnancy, may also in exceptional circumstances be visible in the archaeological record. In total, eight cases of young women buried with fetuses in utero have been recorded from medieval cemetery contexts. These burials represent ‘obstetric catastrophes’ with the death of both mother and child in late pregnancy or childbirth. Although there was a Christian injunction in place in medieval England for infants to be removed from their mother’s womb before burial,92 this does not appear to have been rigorously obeyed.

Yeah, who wouldn’t choose to die like that? I guess they were all just happy sluts, huh Mizz Feminist?

All of the individuals buried with a fetus in utero in medieval cemeteries have an estimated age at death of around 20 years or over, and thus none represent particularly young ‘teenage’ pregnancies.

Because they rarely got pregnant. Look at the evidence.

This may support the idea that in the medieval period teenage girls were not falling pregnant, as first pregnancies are often seen as the most hazardous.93

May? It’s anatomical.

It also fits with the known late pattern of marriage in this society. However, it is by no means certain that all of these women were married. The two examples from St Mary Spital may have represented extramarital pregnancies as the hospital was known to accept unmarried women in pregnancy or childbirth.94 It may be significant that neither of these women received an individual grave or any grave ornamentation. In contrast, the elaborate nature of one young mother’s burial at Barton-upon-Humber, in a coffin within the church and with a cloth of gold artefact,95 surely indicates that this woman was married and held a position of substantial social standing.

Clearly, their situation was a choice.

Given the high mortality rate of women in childbirth in the medieval period revealed by documentary sources,96s it is clear that these rare burials represent a dramatic under-estimation of the real levels of maternal mortality. In many cases, the churches prohibition on burying fetuses in utero may have been observed. In a large proportion of births, too, the child may have been saved, leaving little clue as to the cause of death of the mother.

But doctors (when sane) will elect to save the mother because she can have countless children later but an orphan baby is already financially a goner. Remember this, America.

Conclusion

The period of social adolescence for young medieval women seems to have been an important life stage, encompassing the growth to full physical adulthood and fertility, the adoption of adult working roles and, for most young women, the move from legal dependence on a father to legal dependence on a husband, with perhaps a few brief years of relative independence in between. The comparative absence of young women from documentary sources means that osteological information plays a vital role in our understanding of this group, and it can reveal a great deal about the way in which medieval girls grew into women, the living conditions they enjoyed or endured, the work they did and the health problems they faced.

Many of the conclusions drawn from osteological analysis of this group articulate with and illuminate the documentary evidence. The average age at which full fertility appears to have been achieved, around 20 years, is substantially later than in modern England, but ties in well with the known average age at marriage in this society. The greater susceptibility of young women to respiratory infections, from the relatively benign maxillary sinusitis to the deadly serious tuberculosis, chimes with the picture drawn from documentary sources of an indoor lifestyle for women, close to the smoky fire, and of the cramped living conditions that helped to spread disease. The backbreaking work clearly undertaken by many young women paints a clearer physical picture of their daily lives than that provided by documentary sources alone, and the development of signs of venereal disease in very young women hints at the problem of girls being driven to prostitution in England’s medieval cities.

Gang rape, we still have it. They are driven to it, slave-driven.

Soil fertility makes a nation happy

Funny how nature do that.

Antidepressant Microbes In Soil: How Dirt Makes You Happy

“Soil microbes have been found to have similar effects on the brain and are without side effects and chemical dependency potential.”
“Did you know that there’s a natural antidepressant in soil? It’s true. Mycobacterium vaccae is the substance under study and has indeed been found to mirror the effect on neurons that drugs like Prozac provide. The bacterium is found in soil and may stimulate serotonin production, which makes you relaxed and happier. Studies were conducted on cancer patients and they reported a better quality of life and less stress. Lack of serotonin has been linked to depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar problems.

Let kids play in dirt!

(Deport the people who’d attack kids playing outside!)

The bacterium appears to be a natural antidepressant in soil and has no adverse health effects. These antidepressant microbes in soil may be as easy to use as just playing in the dirt. Most avid gardeners will tell you that their landscape is their “happy place” and the actual physical act of gardening is a stress reducer and mood lifter. The fact that there is some science behind it adds additional credibility to these garden addicts’ claims.

They were already credible since all mood is self-reported.

But okay.

The presence of a soil bacteria antidepressant is not a surprise to many of us who have experienced the phenomenon ourselves. Backing it up with science is fascinating, but not shocking, to the happy gardener. Mycobacterium antidepressant microbes in soil are also being investigated for improving cognitive function, Crohn’s disease and even rheumatoid arthritis.”

Why were the WW2 generation and prior so intelligent?

This is why things like scrubbed, sterilised food and the cozy air conditioned gym are so decadent – go outside and dig a fucking trench, you lazy worm.

There’s also a reason all soldiers worth their salt train outside. You’re not just learning the motions and showing off to a bunch of anorexic fags, you learn to move in the elements.

Gyms are for lightweights, the ancients considered them gay brothels but an alarming number of straight men bought the instawhore propaganda that so much homoerotic body obsession is manly and women like it.

Nooooooooooo.

omnia vanitas, I picture above every gym

It’s so anti-traditional, hostile to logic and artificial.

Show me one feminine woman ‘training’ in a gym. Go ahead. Doesn’t happen. Women know better, to be useful when expending our fewer calories. Ideally making money with your labour instead of straight up time wasting on asscheek validation. Very nice, move on with your life. It’s a climate controlled wimpy environment. If a slight breeze or downpour throws you off, you’re basically a child. The bulk fools nobody. The climate also demands a response, keeping all those twitch muscle fibres and instinctive movements attuned to the real world, not snowflake air conditioned HPV bench land. The HPV must be thick in the air in some places, thanks air con!

Meanwhile, nature:

“Antidepressant microbes in soil cause cytokine levels to rise, which results in the production of higher levels of serotonin. The bacterium was tested both by injection and ingestion on rats, and the results were increased cognitive ability, lower stress and better concentration on tasks than a control group.

Some of the most brittle people you’ll ever meet are broflakes who ‘missed’ their baby protein shake, it’s hilarious. Like soyboys and their burnt Starbucks excuse for a ‘coffee’. Why not suck it all from a giant titty cup and stop kidding yourself? Freud would love this. Talk about oral fixation.

Gardeners inhale the bacteria, have topical contact with it and get it into their bloodstreams when there is a cut or other pathway for infection. The natural effects of the soil bacteria antidepressant can be felt for up to 3 weeks if the experiments with rats are any indication. So get out and play in the dirt and improve your mood and your life.”

I’m tired of tolerating excuses from adults to stay indoors like you’re all afraid of nature. But oh yeah, your ‘guns’ are gonna save you in the Apocalypse, alright…

God forbid a plant scratches you though, you take a dive like a French football team and start sobbing manly tears of gym strength.

It’s unnatural to perform naturally outdoor hobbies indoors. Previously, that was confined to hospital gyms for the elderly. It’s a con. Go outside and stop hoovering up SSRIs and talking about gym endorphins. You’re there for the beauty pageant of closeted poofs. Muh gains, brah. Don’t bother growing a single fucking tomato with all those wasted calories. The gym is manual labour you pay to do.

Serotonin soil paper:
http://www.sage.edu/newsevents/news/?story_id=240785

We don’t need Big Pharma, Big Pharma needs us.

Gyms are also huge business for pussies scared of a little rain.

I doubt Podesta’s indoor gardens, with the constantly jamming water systems, are so nourishing from the soil.