Genetic culture (collectivism, individualism) paper

https://academic.oup.com/scan/article/5/2-3/203/1664339

Over the last 30 years, social psychologists have documented an impressive array of psychocultural differences. For example, in East Asian cultures the self tends to be defined in relationship to the group, or collective, whereas in Western cultures (e.g. Europe and the nations of the former British Commonwealth) there is a greater proclivity for the self to be viewed as unique, stable and independent of the social group (Markus and Kitayama, 1991). A critical question raised by such findings is how do such cultural differences arise? Why do some groups tend towards collectivism, while others tend towards individualism?

Answering this complex question will require integrating many levels of analysis including ecological, sociological, demographic, economic, psychological and biological. A helpful means of integrating these diverse influences is to adopt a cultural neuroscience perspective (Chiao and Ambady, 2007), because the brain is the central hub where each of these influences converge. Accordingly, genes affecting brain function are likely to influence the adoption and formation of cultural norms and, conversely, culture may also shape the expression and selection of genes.

The second part is like saying horses evolved to run in front of carts.

No.

People build on their homeland. Look at architecture. Anglo is quite specific, Germanic, France/Italian/Romantic again, specific. That’s just WEST Europe.

I know some nerd in the future will write their dissertation on how you could predict multiculturalism’s failure by America’s inability to agree on one architectural design aesthetic and I hope I’m here to read it.

Although the study of psychological genetics is in its infancy and much is still to be learned, in this article, we present data suggesting that variation in several genes known to affect brain function appear to influence the degree to which one is emotionally responsive to the social environment. We then extend this social sensitivity hypothesis to the cultural realm and present evidence indicating that it may be of relevance to the cultural construct of individualism–collectivism. Although the vast majority of genetic variation exists within populations (Lewontin, 1972), a measurable proportion of human genetic variation does exist between populations of different ancestral origins. Therefore, we examine below the relationship between population differences in cultural orientation and the relative frequency of several genetic variants thought to affect sensitivity to the social environment. In addition, we also explore potential psychological processes that may explain the effect.

They’ll catch up.

https://ambadylab.stanford.edu/pubs/2007Chiao.pdf

Cultural Neuroscience chapter

see page 3 or 239

“The neuroscience of culture versus race”

e.g.

Cultural neuroscience: parsing universality and diversity across levels of analysis (2007)

Stop straining, sub-species (better known as race) is as real as species and genus.

Arguing for Darwin in biology is common sense, like men and women EXIST (sexual dimorphism).

Even the Creationists don’t question that.

So again, for the cheap seats:

no magic dirt, no magic equal economic cogs and no, cuckservatives, you can’t talk Asians into “acting white” and voting for small gov. They don’t even view themselves as an individual person. Stop projecting libertarian 115IQ white guy reasoning onto the entire planet. You are wrong.

And whatever their upbringing, foreigners NEVER share exactly the same culture.

Even a host culture of a hundred plus years, like blacks had in America to “integrate”.

Never gonna happen.

They’re not like a petri blank.

Fuck, look at Chinatown. In American cities or London, it’s more alike than the host nations.

Over a hundred years. What’s your excuse?

[White culture is also the easiest and nicest to integrate into, so WTF.]

What makes a species classification?

Assuming you’ve read previous links about mixed race fertility issues and health problems.

https://phys.org/news/2019-01-species.html

“Most evolutionary biologists distinguish one species from another based on reproductivity: members of different species either won’t* or can’t mate with one another, or, if they do, the resulting offspring are often sterile, unviable, or suffer some other sort of reduced fitness.
In a new paper published in the journal eLife, the researchers show that sex chromosomes evolve to be genetically incompatible between species faster than the rest of the genetic chromosomes and reveal the factors at play in this incompatibility.

*White women are a different species?

True.

So sexual repulsion is part of species classification.

https://phys.org/news/2016-03-sex-evolve-prof-laurence-hurst.html

“This variation is manifested at the genetic level: sex generates some organisms within the species with lots of harmful mutations and some with relatively few. Supporters of the so-called mutational deterministic theory argue that if organisms with many mutations have disproportionately low survival chances, many bad mutations tend to die out with their hosts, generating a large number of organisms that are free from such mutations.”

“This sort of evolutionary game of cat and mouse is known as Red Queen evolution, from the character in Alice in Wonderland who insisted that one must run just to stay in the same place. Indeed, genes related to immunity are some of the fastest evolving we have. There is also recent evidence that species can increase the amount of genetic mixing they do when they sense that they are infected with a parasite. This means their offspring will be even more different from one another and their parents.”

Hard times make strong men.

https://phys.org/news/2018-11-human-evolution-possibly-faster.html

“But neutral evolution can’t explain why some genes are evolving much faster than others. We measure the speed of gene evolution by comparing human DNA with that of other species, which also allows us to determine which genes are fast-evolving in humans alone. One fast-evolving gene is human accelerated region 1 (HAR1), which is needed during brain development. A random section of human DNA is on average more than 98% identical to the chimp comparator, but HAR1 is so fast evolving that it’s only around 85% similar.

Though scientists can see these changes are happening – and how quickly – we still don’t fully understand why fast evolution happens to some genes but not others. Originally thought to be the result of natural selection exclusively, we now know this isn’t always true.”

“The human mutation rate itself may also be changing. The main source of mutations in human DNA is the cell division process that creates sperm cells. The older males get, the more mutations occur in their sperm. So if their contribution to the gene pool changes – for example, if men delay having children – the mutation rate will change too. This sets the rate of neutral evolution.”

I have covered paternal age before. Few times.

Men delaying fatherhood is killing the West more than low birth rates. Having a few sprogs when you’re older only works if they’re higher quality than you could’ve had earlier.

Although obviously the birth rate CANNOT rise without marriage rates rising first.

https://www.livescience.com/609-hundreds-human-genes-evolving.html

“This study addresses the question ‘Are humans still evolving?’, and the answer is ‘Absolutely,'” study team member Benjamin Voight”

“The researchers also found positive selection in four pigment genes important for lighter skin in Europeans that were not known before. Scientists think humans evolved lighter skin in Europe as an adaptation to less sunlight.”

or it could be like domesticating foxes and be a visible side effect of lower criminal aggression, more civilization?
just test albinos in non-white groups

“And in East Asians, they found strong evidence of positive selection in genes involved in the production of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a protein necessary for breaking down alcohol. Many East Asians can’t metabolize alcohol because they carry a mutation that prevents them from making ADH. The new finding suggests that the mutation may confer some currently unknown additional benefit.”

naturalistic fallacy, mutations can hold you back too

for example, if being able to produce it made you more prone to alcoholism, a disadvantage

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131031124612.htm

“Only a few genetic changes are needed to spur the evolution of new species—even if the original populations are still in contact and exchanging genes.

Multiculturalism isn’t the risk you think it is.

[The risk to democracy, however….
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120827122410.htm ]

Once started, however, evolutionary divergence evolves rapidly, ultimately leading to fully genetically isolated species, report scientists.”

“”Our work suggests that a few advantageous mutations are enough to cause a ‘tug-of-war’ between natural selection and gene flow, which can lead to rapidly diverging genomes,” Kronforst said.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171012143324.htm

“A study of diverse African groups by geneticists has identified new genetic variants associated with skin pigmentation. The findings help explain the vast range of skin color on the African continent, shed light on human evolution and inform an understanding of the genetic risk factors for conditions such as skin cancer.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180711114544.htm

The one tribe in Africa thing was always a myth.

https://www.livescience.com/445-darwin-natural-selection-work-humans.html

“The findings suggest that about 9 percent of the human genes examined are undergoing rapid evolution.

“Our study suggests that natural selection has played an important role in patterning the human genome,” said Carlos Bustamante, a biologist at Cornell University.

A separate study announced last month indicated the human brain is still evolving, too.

Compared to chimps …”

If there’s reproduction, there’s evolution.

BC mutation.

Another 13 percent of the genes examined in the study showed evidence for negative selection, whereby harmful mutations are weeded out of the population. These included some genes implicated in hereditary diseases, such as muscular dystrophy and Usher syndrome. The latter is the most common cause of congenital blindness and deafness in developed countries.

Medical geneticists are interested in finding genes sensitive to negative selection because they might one day be useful for predicting an individual’s likelihood of developing a disease if the types of mutation to a gene and the environmental conditions are known.

Being able to determine which classes of genes are particularly vulnerable to negative selections is a first step, Bustamante said.”

Negative selection.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140821124835.htm

“A newly-discovered species of ant supports a controversial theory of species formation. The ant, only found in a single patch of eucalyptus trees on the São Paulo State University campus in Brazil, branched off from its original species while living in the same colony, something thought rare in current models of evolutionary development.

Nope!

“Most new species come about in geographic isolation,” said Christian Rabeling, assistant professor of biology at the University of Rochester. “We now have evidence that speciation can take place within a single colony.”

The findings by Rabeling and the research team were published today in the journal Current Biology.”

B-b-b-but…

Where’s the evidence?

European selection of intelligence genomes in ancient history

https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/BF2A35F0D4F565757875287E59A1F534/S1832427417000378a.pdf/holocene_selection_for_variants_associated_with_general_cognitive_ability_comparing_ancient_and_modern_genomes.pdf

Human populations living during the Holocene underwent considerable microevolutionary change. It has been theorized that the transition of Holocene populations into agrarianism and urbanization brought about culture-gene co-evolution that favored via directional selection genetic variants associated with higher general cognitive ability (GCA).

aka the people who didn’t eat their seed crop lived to tell about it

To examine whether GCA might have risen during the Holocene, we compare a sample of 99 ancient Eurasian

misnomer

genomes (ranging from 4.56 to 1.21 kyr BP) with a sample of 503 modern European genomes

told ya so

You wouldn’t need to keep distinguishing it if they were synonymous.

(Fst = 0.013), using three different cognitive polygenic scores (130 SNP, 9 SNP and 11 SNP). Significant differences favoring the modern genomes were found for all three polygenic scores (odds ratios = 0.92, p = 001; .81, p = 037; and .81, p = .02 respectively). These polygenic scores also outperformed the majority of scores assembled from random

evolution is directed to fitness, quelle surprise

SNPs generated via a Monte Carlo model (between 76.4% and 84.6%). Furthermore, an indication of increasing positive allele count over 3.25 kyr was found using a subsample of 66 ancient genomes (r = 0.22, pone-tailed = .04). These observations are consistent with the expectation that GCA rose during the Holocene.

To a large extent, your survival is pre-destined.

Gene for nose shape found

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/0516/190516-nose-shape

Figured I’d remind you this exists in light of  How To Judge People By What They Look Like’s detractors.

The four genes mainly affect the width and ‘pointiness’ of noses which vary greatly between different populations.

Populations = races

Pic or it didn’t happen

Compare to Marquardt’s work, which should be compared to character traits and faults in a meta-analysis.

Are people who fit this mask just good-looking or good people, period?

The researchers identified five genes which play a role in controlling the shape of specific facial features. DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3 and PAX1 affect the width and pointiness of the nose and another gene – EDAR – affects chin protrusion.

See attractiveness tag.
Perception is invaluable.

“Few studies have looked at how normal facial features develop and those that have only looked at European populations, which show less diversity than the group we studied. What we’ve found are specific genes which influence the shape and size of individual features, which hasn’t been seen before.

try looking

“Finding out the role each gene plays helps us to piece together the evolutionary path from Neanderthal to modern humans. It brings us closer to understanding how genes influence the way we look, which is important for forensics applications,” said the first author of the report, Dr Kaustubh Adhikari, (UCL Cell & Developmental Biology).

Isn’t it a little superficial to assume the genes just code for appearance of the face and not the brain behind it? What about forehead size and brain size?

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2003/sep/28/research.health

The study identified genes that are involved in bone and cartilage growth and the development of the face. GLI3, DCHS2 and PAX1 are all genes known to drive cartilage growth – GLI3 gave the strongest signal for controlling the breadth of nostrils, DCHS2 was found to control nose ‘pointiness’ and PAX1 also influences nostril breadth. RUNX2 which drives bone growth was seen to control nose bridge width.

hooks?

The genes GLI3, DCHS2 and RUNX2 are known to show strong signals of recent selection in modern humans compared to archaic humans such as Neanderthals and Denisovans; GLI3 in particular undergoing rapid evolution.

You should be forced to disclose any and all plastic surgeries before marriage, with photos of the real face. Otherwise it’s genetic fraud.

Guardian quote

Proper nourishment in early life and providing a stimulating intellectual environment are vital for achieving good brain growth and development and this lasts through life. In other words, brain growth in childhood is important not only in determining how bright you become but how bright you stay,‘ said Martyn.

‘That is the real message from this study: that we have to ensure infants and children are brought up in conditions that optimise brain growth – partly to provide us with lots of bright young adults but also to reduce risk of decline in higher mental function in old age.’

When I object to poverty, I see the long-time consequences.

https://disenchantedscholar.wordpress.com/2018/04/08/but-foreign-aid-is-important/

Lower national IQ. We’re sending all those nutrients overseas.

https://disenchantedscholar.wordpress.com/2018/01/07/population-r-selection-food-supply-and-famine/

Literally.

Gen Z grew up with organic food. Coincidence?

Alcohol, DNA mutation and evolution

https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/alcohol/alcohol-fact-sheet

Michael Douglas’ cancer was probably caused by alcohol.

All alcohol causes permanent DNA mutation. Over time it builds up.

Researchers have identified multiple ways that alcohol may increase the risk of cancer, including:

Alcoholic beverages may also contain a variety of carcinogenic contaminants that are introduced during fermentation and production, such as nitrosaminesasbestos fibers, phenols, and hydrocarbons.

Is there a racial difference?

You bet.

Can a person’s genes affect their risk of alcohol-related cancers?

A person’s risk of alcohol-related cancers is influenced by their genes, specifically the genes that encode enzymes involved in metabolizing (breaking down) alcohol (13).

For example, one way the body metabolizes alcohol is through the activity of an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase, or ADH. Many individuals of Chinese, Korean, and especially Japanese descent carry a version of the gene for ADH that codes for a “superactive” form of the enzyme. This superactive ADH enzyme speeds the conversion of alcohol (ethanol) to toxic acetaldehyde. As a result, when people who have the superactive enzyme drink alcohol, acetaldehyde builds up. Among people of Japanese descent, those who have this superactive ADH have a higher risk of pancreatic cancer than those with the more common form of ADH (14).

Another enzyme, called aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), metabolizes toxic acetaldehyde to non-toxic substances. Some people, particularly those of East Asian descent, carry a variant of the gene for ALDH2 that codes for a defective form of the enzyme. In people who have the defective enzyme, acetaldehyde builds up when they drink alcohol. The accumulation of acetaldehyde has such unpleasant effects (including facial flushing and heart palpitations) that most people who have inherited the ALDH2 variant are unable to consume large amounts of alcohol. Therefore, most people with the defective form of ALDH2 have a low risk of developing alcohol-related cancers.

However, some individuals with the defective form of ALDH2 can become tolerant to the unpleasant effects of acetaldehyde and consume large amounts of alcohol. Epidemiologic studies have shown that such individuals have a higher risk of alcohol-related esophageal cancer, as well as of head and neck cancers, than individuals with the fully active enzyme who drink comparable amounts of alcohol (15). These increased risks are seen only among people who carry the ALDH2 variant and drink alcohol—they are not observed in people who carry the variant but do not drink alcohol.

Few epidemiologic studies have looked specifically at the association between red wine consumption and cancer risk in humans.