What makes a species classification?

Assuming you’ve read previous links about mixed race fertility issues and health problems.

https://phys.org/news/2019-01-species.html

“Most evolutionary biologists distinguish one species from another based on reproductivity: members of different species either won’t* or can’t mate with one another, or, if they do, the resulting offspring are often sterile, unviable, or suffer some other sort of reduced fitness.
In a new paper published in the journal eLife, the researchers show that sex chromosomes evolve to be genetically incompatible between species faster than the rest of the genetic chromosomes and reveal the factors at play in this incompatibility.

*White women are a different species?

True.

So sexual repulsion is part of species classification.

https://phys.org/news/2016-03-sex-evolve-prof-laurence-hurst.html

“This variation is manifested at the genetic level: sex generates some organisms within the species with lots of harmful mutations and some with relatively few. Supporters of the so-called mutational deterministic theory argue that if organisms with many mutations have disproportionately low survival chances, many bad mutations tend to die out with their hosts, generating a large number of organisms that are free from such mutations.”

“This sort of evolutionary game of cat and mouse is known as Red Queen evolution, from the character in Alice in Wonderland who insisted that one must run just to stay in the same place. Indeed, genes related to immunity are some of the fastest evolving we have. There is also recent evidence that species can increase the amount of genetic mixing they do when they sense that they are infected with a parasite. This means their offspring will be even more different from one another and their parents.”

Hard times make strong men.

https://phys.org/news/2018-11-human-evolution-possibly-faster.html

“But neutral evolution can’t explain why some genes are evolving much faster than others. We measure the speed of gene evolution by comparing human DNA with that of other species, which also allows us to determine which genes are fast-evolving in humans alone. One fast-evolving gene is human accelerated region 1 (HAR1), which is needed during brain development. A random section of human DNA is on average more than 98% identical to the chimp comparator, but HAR1 is so fast evolving that it’s only around 85% similar.

Though scientists can see these changes are happening – and how quickly – we still don’t fully understand why fast evolution happens to some genes but not others. Originally thought to be the result of natural selection exclusively, we now know this isn’t always true.”

“The human mutation rate itself may also be changing. The main source of mutations in human DNA is the cell division process that creates sperm cells. The older males get, the more mutations occur in their sperm. So if their contribution to the gene pool changes – for example, if men delay having children – the mutation rate will change too. This sets the rate of neutral evolution.”

I have covered paternal age before. Few times.

Men delaying fatherhood is killing the West more than low birth rates. Having a few sprogs when you’re older only works if they’re higher quality than you could’ve had earlier.

Although obviously the birth rate CANNOT rise without marriage rates rising first.

https://www.livescience.com/609-hundreds-human-genes-evolving.html

“This study addresses the question ‘Are humans still evolving?’, and the answer is ‘Absolutely,'” study team member Benjamin Voight”

“The researchers also found positive selection in four pigment genes important for lighter skin in Europeans that were not known before. Scientists think humans evolved lighter skin in Europe as an adaptation to less sunlight.”

or it could be like domesticating foxes and be a visible side effect of lower criminal aggression, more civilization?
just test albinos in non-white groups

“And in East Asians, they found strong evidence of positive selection in genes involved in the production of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a protein necessary for breaking down alcohol. Many East Asians can’t metabolize alcohol because they carry a mutation that prevents them from making ADH. The new finding suggests that the mutation may confer some currently unknown additional benefit.”

naturalistic fallacy, mutations can hold you back too

for example, if being able to produce it made you more prone to alcoholism, a disadvantage

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131031124612.htm

“Only a few genetic changes are needed to spur the evolution of new species—even if the original populations are still in contact and exchanging genes.

Multiculturalism isn’t the risk you think it is.

[The risk to democracy, however….
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120827122410.htm ]

Once started, however, evolutionary divergence evolves rapidly, ultimately leading to fully genetically isolated species, report scientists.”

“”Our work suggests that a few advantageous mutations are enough to cause a ‘tug-of-war’ between natural selection and gene flow, which can lead to rapidly diverging genomes,” Kronforst said.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171012143324.htm

“A study of diverse African groups by geneticists has identified new genetic variants associated with skin pigmentation. The findings help explain the vast range of skin color on the African continent, shed light on human evolution and inform an understanding of the genetic risk factors for conditions such as skin cancer.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180711114544.htm

The one tribe in Africa thing was always a myth.

https://www.livescience.com/445-darwin-natural-selection-work-humans.html

“The findings suggest that about 9 percent of the human genes examined are undergoing rapid evolution.

“Our study suggests that natural selection has played an important role in patterning the human genome,” said Carlos Bustamante, a biologist at Cornell University.

A separate study announced last month indicated the human brain is still evolving, too.

Compared to chimps …”

If there’s reproduction, there’s evolution.

BC mutation.

Another 13 percent of the genes examined in the study showed evidence for negative selection, whereby harmful mutations are weeded out of the population. These included some genes implicated in hereditary diseases, such as muscular dystrophy and Usher syndrome. The latter is the most common cause of congenital blindness and deafness in developed countries.

Medical geneticists are interested in finding genes sensitive to negative selection because they might one day be useful for predicting an individual’s likelihood of developing a disease if the types of mutation to a gene and the environmental conditions are known.

Being able to determine which classes of genes are particularly vulnerable to negative selections is a first step, Bustamante said.”

Negative selection.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140821124835.htm

“A newly-discovered species of ant supports a controversial theory of species formation. The ant, only found in a single patch of eucalyptus trees on the São Paulo State University campus in Brazil, branched off from its original species while living in the same colony, something thought rare in current models of evolutionary development.

Nope!

“Most new species come about in geographic isolation,” said Christian Rabeling, assistant professor of biology at the University of Rochester. “We now have evidence that speciation can take place within a single colony.”

The findings by Rabeling and the research team were published today in the journal Current Biology.”

B-b-b-but…

Where’s the evidence?

European selection of intelligence genomes in ancient history

https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/BF2A35F0D4F565757875287E59A1F534/S1832427417000378a.pdf/holocene_selection_for_variants_associated_with_general_cognitive_ability_comparing_ancient_and_modern_genomes.pdf

Human populations living during the Holocene underwent considerable microevolutionary change. It has been theorized that the transition of Holocene populations into agrarianism and urbanization brought about culture-gene co-evolution that favored via directional selection genetic variants associated with higher general cognitive ability (GCA).

aka the people who didn’t eat their seed crop lived to tell about it

To examine whether GCA might have risen during the Holocene, we compare a sample of 99 ancient Eurasian

misnomer

genomes (ranging from 4.56 to 1.21 kyr BP) with a sample of 503 modern European genomes

told ya so

You wouldn’t need to keep distinguishing it if they were synonymous.

(Fst = 0.013), using three different cognitive polygenic scores (130 SNP, 9 SNP and 11 SNP). Significant differences favoring the modern genomes were found for all three polygenic scores (odds ratios = 0.92, p = 001; .81, p = 037; and .81, p = .02 respectively). These polygenic scores also outperformed the majority of scores assembled from random

evolution is directed to fitness, quelle surprise

SNPs generated via a Monte Carlo model (between 76.4% and 84.6%). Furthermore, an indication of increasing positive allele count over 3.25 kyr was found using a subsample of 66 ancient genomes (r = 0.22, pone-tailed = .04). These observations are consistent with the expectation that GCA rose during the Holocene.

To a large extent, your survival is pre-destined.

Gene for nose shape found

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/0516/190516-nose-shape

Figured I’d remind you this exists in light of  How To Judge People By What They Look Like’s detractors.

The four genes mainly affect the width and ‘pointiness’ of noses which vary greatly between different populations.

Populations = races

Pic or it didn’t happen

Compare to Marquardt’s work, which should be compared to character traits and faults in a meta-analysis.

Are people who fit this mask just good-looking or good people, period?

The researchers identified five genes which play a role in controlling the shape of specific facial features. DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3 and PAX1 affect the width and pointiness of the nose and another gene – EDAR – affects chin protrusion.

See attractiveness tag.
Perception is invaluable.

“Few studies have looked at how normal facial features develop and those that have only looked at European populations, which show less diversity than the group we studied. What we’ve found are specific genes which influence the shape and size of individual features, which hasn’t been seen before.

try looking

“Finding out the role each gene plays helps us to piece together the evolutionary path from Neanderthal to modern humans. It brings us closer to understanding how genes influence the way we look, which is important for forensics applications,” said the first author of the report, Dr Kaustubh Adhikari, (UCL Cell & Developmental Biology).

Isn’t it a little superficial to assume the genes just code for appearance of the face and not the brain behind it? What about forehead size and brain size?

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2003/sep/28/research.health

The study identified genes that are involved in bone and cartilage growth and the development of the face. GLI3, DCHS2 and PAX1 are all genes known to drive cartilage growth – GLI3 gave the strongest signal for controlling the breadth of nostrils, DCHS2 was found to control nose ‘pointiness’ and PAX1 also influences nostril breadth. RUNX2 which drives bone growth was seen to control nose bridge width.

hooks?

The genes GLI3, DCHS2 and RUNX2 are known to show strong signals of recent selection in modern humans compared to archaic humans such as Neanderthals and Denisovans; GLI3 in particular undergoing rapid evolution.

You should be forced to disclose any and all plastic surgeries before marriage, with photos of the real face. Otherwise it’s genetic fraud.

Guardian quote

Proper nourishment in early life and providing a stimulating intellectual environment are vital for achieving good brain growth and development and this lasts through life. In other words, brain growth in childhood is important not only in determining how bright you become but how bright you stay,‘ said Martyn.

‘That is the real message from this study: that we have to ensure infants and children are brought up in conditions that optimise brain growth – partly to provide us with lots of bright young adults but also to reduce risk of decline in higher mental function in old age.’

When I object to poverty, I see the long-time consequences.

https://disenchantedscholar.wordpress.com/2018/04/08/but-foreign-aid-is-important/

Lower national IQ. We’re sending all those nutrients overseas.

https://disenchantedscholar.wordpress.com/2018/01/07/population-r-selection-food-supply-and-famine/

Literally.

Gen Z grew up with organic food. Coincidence?

Alcohol, DNA mutation and evolution

https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/alcohol/alcohol-fact-sheet

Michael Douglas’ cancer was probably caused by alcohol.

All alcohol causes permanent DNA mutation. Over time it builds up.

Researchers have identified multiple ways that alcohol may increase the risk of cancer, including:

Alcoholic beverages may also contain a variety of carcinogenic contaminants that are introduced during fermentation and production, such as nitrosaminesasbestos fibers, phenols, and hydrocarbons.

Is there a racial difference?

You bet.

Can a person’s genes affect their risk of alcohol-related cancers?

A person’s risk of alcohol-related cancers is influenced by their genes, specifically the genes that encode enzymes involved in metabolizing (breaking down) alcohol (13).

For example, one way the body metabolizes alcohol is through the activity of an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase, or ADH. Many individuals of Chinese, Korean, and especially Japanese descent carry a version of the gene for ADH that codes for a “superactive” form of the enzyme. This superactive ADH enzyme speeds the conversion of alcohol (ethanol) to toxic acetaldehyde. As a result, when people who have the superactive enzyme drink alcohol, acetaldehyde builds up. Among people of Japanese descent, those who have this superactive ADH have a higher risk of pancreatic cancer than those with the more common form of ADH (14).

Another enzyme, called aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), metabolizes toxic acetaldehyde to non-toxic substances. Some people, particularly those of East Asian descent, carry a variant of the gene for ALDH2 that codes for a defective form of the enzyme. In people who have the defective enzyme, acetaldehyde builds up when they drink alcohol. The accumulation of acetaldehyde has such unpleasant effects (including facial flushing and heart palpitations) that most people who have inherited the ALDH2 variant are unable to consume large amounts of alcohol. Therefore, most people with the defective form of ALDH2 have a low risk of developing alcohol-related cancers.

However, some individuals with the defective form of ALDH2 can become tolerant to the unpleasant effects of acetaldehyde and consume large amounts of alcohol. Epidemiologic studies have shown that such individuals have a higher risk of alcohol-related esophageal cancer, as well as of head and neck cancers, than individuals with the fully active enzyme who drink comparable amounts of alcohol (15). These increased risks are seen only among people who carry the ALDH2 variant and drink alcohol—they are not observed in people who carry the variant but do not drink alcohol.

Few epidemiologic studies have looked specifically at the association between red wine consumption and cancer risk in humans.

“Native Americans” a myth

http://genetics.thetech.org/ask/ask41

“Also the language spoken by some Native American people closely resembles ancient Asian languages.”

They’re trying to whitewash how they conquered that land by using the multiple migrations line, like it was all peaceful and refugee signs.

“Some years ago archeologists found the remains of an ancient settlement in Chile. They were surprised to find that it was 12,500 years old. This is much more ancient than the Clovis People! Also, the skeletons found in this site resemble more the people of Polynesia than the inhabitants of Siberia. The theory is that these people may have arrived by boat to America from Polynesia. Now we believe that there were separate groups of people who came to America from Asia.”

And what did they find there?

No people whatsoever?

Pull the other one.

“Scientists looked at mtDNA from many Native Americans and many Asians. They were surprised again. Based on their DNA, Native Americans belong to five different groups. Groups 1-4 are closely related to Asian people. The fifth group is most closely related European or Western Asian people! So it seems most Native Americans are originally from Asia and as you said fundamentally Asian. However, it seems there are some whose origins are from Europe

You don’t think the Spanish had anything to do with that last bit?
Notice the concealment of saying Truth OR easily explained Lie.

This is also why you don’t take the current population donating genes for the original population by label.

See Turkey for a wealth of examples.

NatGeo, who recently sank to the depth of letting Emma Watson use one of their accounts, corroborates this lie.

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/11/131120-science-native-american-people-migration-siberia-genetics/

“Great Surprise”—Native Americans Have West Eurasian Origins

Yes, it is a great surprise to anyone who reads. When we showed up, they didn’t live in a White-level culture. They were still shitting anywhere like animals (China still has this problem), using women like animals (Middle East) and living a primitive lifestyle, like animals.

Red =/= White.

The only “white supremacy” I’ve ever seen is how every other race tries to claim at some point that they’re secretly actually white to dilute the term and borrow achievements. No, go to another treehouse.

“Oldest human genome reveals less of an East Asian ancestry than thought.” One study by liars = fuck-all.

Noble savage photo because why not?

We introduced horses but ignore that fact.

https://www.livescience.com/9589-surprising-history-america-wild-horses.html

“The last prehistoric North American horses died out between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago, at the end of the Pleistocene” the noble savages ate them

“It is well known that domesticated horses were introduced into North America beginning with the Spanish conquest”

Back to NatGeo

“The study authors believe the new study could also help resolve some long-standing puzzles on the peopling of the New World, which include genetic oddities and archaeological inconsistencies.

That happens when your field has almost as many liars as social psychology.

For those not in the know

Fields by penetration of liars:

  1. theoretical physics, where no idea is ever stupid enough (we’ll find something eventually, give us money)
  2. social psychology and sociology, social pathologies (illegal since the time of Stalin*)
  3. forensics and genetics, archaeology including cultural (you are not who you think you are, give us money)

For 2, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_abuse_of_psychiatry_in_the_Soviet_Union

Sub*: (you are all sinners against the State and we can help you, give us money)

“I hadn’t expected anything like this. A genome related to present-day western Eurasian populations and modern Native Americans as well was really puzzling in the beginning. How could this happen?”

Uhuh.

Only Eurasian though, huh?

You couldn’t go the full hog and say exclusively European. There is no Eurasian. It’s a labeling convention.

“DNA from the remains revealed genes found today in western Eurasians in the Middle East and Europe,”

See? Do you see why the bit above now? The assumption is false. The whole thing after falls apart.

“humans occupied this region of Siberia throughout the entire brutally cold period of the Last Glacial Maximum, which ended about 13,000 years ago.”

Humans never migrated during the Ice Age….

“This study changes this idea because it shows that a significant minority of Native American ancestry actually derives not from East Asia but from a people related to present-day western Eurasians,” Willerslev said.

Well, does that mean the Asians 4/5 genome invaded and slaughtered the European part?
If only there were a name for such an event.

“The meeting of those two groups is what formed Native Americans as we know them.”

Meeting? Like, round a table or a stump…?

I hope you’re learning how to spot this.

“Although we know that North Americans are related to East Asians, it’s striking that no contemporary East Asian populations really resemble Native Americans,” he said.

Wait, race is not only real but biological, traceable and you can SEE it?

“It’s not like you can say that they are really closely related

sub-race

to Japanese, Chinese, or Koreans, so there seems to be something missing. But this result makes a lot of sense regarding why they don’t fit so well genetically with contemporary

maybe they’re primal ones? Occam’s Razor.

East Asians—because one-third of their genome is derived from another population.”

That’s called rape. You think the Spanish just decided to stop playing nice one day?

The findings could also allow reinterpretation of archaeological and anthropological evidence, like the famed Kennewick Man, whose remains don’t look much like modern-day Native American or East Asian populations, according to some interpretations.

There it is, the money shot. The purpose for doing the study and publishing in Nature. As an excuse to twist and hide other, real findings. I knew it.

Kennewick Man isn’t allowed to be an original settler of different racial composition because it doesn’t fit the Narrative. Calling one group Native when they’re not is really, really biased?

“Maybe, if he looks like something else

Suddenly ambiguous “scientist”.

Many questions remain unanswered, including where and when the mixing of west Eurasian and East Asian populations occurred.

trans. This lie is not consistent but fuck you, we’re going with it.

The Siberian child “was found buried with all kinds of cultural items, including Venus figurines, which have been found from Lake Baikal west all the way to Europe.

Yes, I’m sure he was a feminist. It can’t have been a sculpture of his mother to play with?

Why do all found objects of women have to be sexual? It’s a kid, it’s a toy.

“So now we know”

yes, that’s how science works

“the individual represented with this culture is a western Eurasian, even though he was found very far east.”

Sample of one. No. Where are your boundary lines?

He could’ve just moved or been isolated by the weather conditions. No guarantee he permanently lived there.

“It’s an interesting question how closely related this individual might have been to the individuals carving these figurines at the same time in Europe and elsewhere.”

Now the exclusively European thing comes in. AFTER all the “evidence”, with this one guy’s opinion.

There is no white people apparently, only shades of Asian. That’s the new narrative. White people don’t exist, never existed. Sure, Asians can’t do dairy but if you dare suggest that was evolution, why, you’re basically Hitler.

This guy’s opinion

“The scientific enterprise that Dr. Willerslev helped invent now sometimes crosses into culturally sensitive terrain.”

He’s the standard but he can’t, like, lie to us with it.

“Last June, he and his colleagues published the genome of an 8,500-year-old skeleton from Washington State known as Kennewick Man, or the Ancient One.”

Well, he got what he wanted. In 2015.

“During his research, Dr. Willerslev met with representatives from the tribes. One tribe agreed to donate DNA for his study.

Kennewick Man, Dr. Willerslev and his colleagues concluded, was related to living Native Americans.”

Pings to me. Why wouldn’t you follow procedure and publish the ancient DNA first, in public, THEN compare to known tribes, plural?
Do you know the odds of that, based on the diversity of the tribes alone? It happens to match this one guy? Do you know how astronomically unlikely that is? He just happens to shoot a bulls-eye on horseback from 500 yards away.

I wonder what his political motive is:

“The Yukaghir were not an exotic tribe living in utter isolation. In fact, virtually all of them could count Russians and people from other ethnic groups among their ancestors.”

Prior study: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/247747.php

In what they describe as the most comprehensive survey of genetic diversity in Native Americans

clue: more than one guy

so far, the researchers studied variation in Native American DNA sequences.

not matches, magical pixie dust matches

They found that while most Native American populations descend primarily from one migration, there were two later ones that also made a significant genetic contribution.

The first migration, that led to the majority of Native American populations, was of a single group called the “First Americans” that crossed from Asia to America in a land bridge called Beringia, that existed during the ice ages more than 15,000 years ago, say the researchers, whose efforts were co-ordinated by Professor Andres Ruiz-Linares of the department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment at University College London (UCL) in the UK.

“The Asian lineage leading to First Americans is the most anciently diverged, whereas the Asian lineages that contributed some of the DNA to Eskimo-Aleut speakers and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada are more closely related to present-day East Asian populations,” says Reich.

Contrast this with Mr They’re NOT Related to Japanese/Chinese/Koreans.
Someone is lying.

It appears that 50% of the DNA of Eskimo-Aleut speakers comes from the First Americans, while in the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyans, 90% of their DNA descends from the First Americans.

In the West-East re-mix, it seems some Eskimo-Aleut speakers migrated back to Asia, as the genomes of Naukan and coastal Chukchi populations of north-eastern Siberia carry some “First American” DNA.

Backwash truth, not original lies. Fuck you, first guy. This one actually conducted his research first by date but isn’t in National Geographic.

The analysis was not straightforward, because the researchers had to find a way to rule out genes from the European and African populations that arrived in the Americas from the late 15th century onwards.

Bold theirs. That time.

Ruiz-Linares says they managed to develop a method to “peel back” the addition of those genes to the mix, which he says “allowed us to study the history of many more Native American populations than we could have done otherwise”.

The team included researchers from: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, France, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, the UK, and the US.

Point me the better study.

You know it’s important when the Guardian gets on board and sticks in an oar.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/jan/03/ancient-dna-reveals-previously-unknown-group-of-native-americans-ancient-beringians

“This is a new population of Native Americans,” said Eske Willerslev

Guess from that line.

2018 – new race guys! I just tripped over one this time! I dunno why these groundbreaking new findings keep happening to me!

compared the genetic makeup of the baby, named Xach’itee’aanenh t’eede gaay or “sunrise child-girl” by the local community, with genomes from other ancient and modern people. 

Old + New = Old but also New? WTF.

Why not just publish the girl’s DNA alone THEN… oh, nevermind. You know, you know.

They found that nearly half of the girl’s DNA came from the ancient north Eurasians who lived in what is now Siberia.

white?

The rest of her genetic makeup was a roughly even mix of DNA now carried by the northern and southern Native Americans.

how

literally, how does that work? And both? Despite little to no admixture, in the other guy’s study?

“Using evolutionary models”

Oh, okay, he just made it up.

“About 25,000 years ago, this group mixed and bred with ancient north Eurasians in the region”

Lies you will like, in newspaper form.

Is that a snide reference to conquest and rape? Denying the backflow? Who knows, it’s so vague you could throw a kitchen sink in there and make it work.

Those who settled in the north became the isolated ancient Beringians, he said, while those who moved south, around or through the ice sheets, split into the north and south Native Americans about 15,700 years ago.”

So you found …nothing.

The other guy said about the initial migration. You just made up a name and stuck it (see the issue with shitty labels?) on an already-known group. A purer group.

But there is another possibility. Ben Potter, an archaeologist on the team from the University of Alaska in Fairbanks, suspects that the Beringians split from the ancestors

that’s called a race

of other Native Americans in Asia

are they Asian or not?

before both groups made their way across the land bridge to North America in separate migrations. “The support for this scenario is pretty strong,” he said. “We have no evidence of people in the Beringia region 20,000 years ago.”

translation: We have no convenient evidence of Asians in the region.

To piss some people off: Absence of  evidence is not evidence of absence.
If only their job were getting evidence.

Like a real scientist.

I may not be an expert on fishing but something doesn’t smell right about this.

Connie Mulligan, an anthropologist at the University of Florida, said the findings pointed to a single migration of people from Asia to the New World, but said other questions remained.

Questions like, what are you smoking?

My money is on Benjamins from the taxpayer. I’m right, aren’t I?

You aren’t allowed to notice the black swans and maybe it will go away, maybe people will forget.

He added that he was unconvinced that the ancient Beringian group split from the ancestors of other Native Americans 20,000 years ago, because even tiny errors in scientists’ data can lead to radically different split times for evolutionary lineages.

Oh, the Harvard guy can science. Excellent.

Nice to know someone’s almonds are shaking.

Yes, “errors.”

When this fraud comes out, can the people doing it go to prison, please? If you robbed the Fed directly they would but if there’s academic fraud…. suddenly they can play dumb?

It even happens in cancer research: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/03/cancer-researcher-ohio-state-university-resigns-following-multiple-misconduct-findings

Guess the race of the guy cheating. Clue: same as Eton.

I didn’t know – when it was their job, they accepted money to do?

They actively applied for this money, and suggested they did know?

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/07/mysterious-link-emerges-between-native-americans-and-people-half-globe-away

Both detect in modern Native Americans a trace of DNA related to that of native people from Australia and Melanesia.

American Indians actually aborigines?

They concluded

falsely

that all Native Americans, ancient and modern, stem from a single source population in Siberia that split from other Asians around 23,000 years ago and moved into the now-drowned land of Beringia.

We wuz Siberians.

But the Science team also found a surprising dash of Australo-Melanesian DNA in some living Native Americans, including those of the Aleutian Islands and the Surui people of Amazonian Brazil.

They looked for evidence?!

And found it?!

I am shook.

Some anthropologists had previously suggested an Australo-Melanesian link.

So it isn’t new.

They noted that certain populations of extinct Native Americans

who killed ’em

(hint: other “Native Americans”)

had long, narrow skulls, resembling those of some Australo-Melanesians

everything skull is phrenology people in the distance, stampeding

distinct from the round, broad skulls of most Native Americans.

They’d love to say that isn’t science.

That’s a typical Asian skill btw.

drew on a different source population in Asia. A similar claim was made for the Kennewick Man, the iconic 8500-year-old skeleton from Washington state, but was refuted when his genome was published by this team last month: He is related only to Native Americans

Was it?

And doesn’t that strike anyone as unusual at all?

The Science results also counter the Paleoamerican model. When the team sequenced the DNA of 17 individuals from the extinct South American populations with the distinctive skulls, they found no trace of Australo-Melanesian ancestry.

No trace? What could this mean?

I’m sure they’ll tell us what to think, hold onto your European horses.

So how did living South Americans get a dose of this Australo-Melanesian DNA?

this nobody can deny, nobody can deny!

“A possible explanation is that the connection reflects more recent gene flow,” says Science co-lead author Eske Willerslev

That guy. Again.

You see, once something is refuted, nobody bothers to double-check it for… centuries.

Don’t question the High Priests of Science, kids! Ignorant is the new Evil!

This is a unique situation because there were two studies on the same subject in the same field published at the same time. Hence my spotlight. One of them is either innocently misguided (uhuh) or lying.

Hubbe, however, counters that the study could have missed telltale DNA in the ancient populations because its sample size is “extremely small.” geneticist David Reich of Harvard Medical School in Boston and leader of the Nature team, agrees, noting that the genomes from the 17 ancient relict populations are incomplete and provide very low coverage.

I wonder which is which….

Hubbe, however, counters that the study could have missed

he knows, he knows they’re full of it

That’s the “bitch, I KNOW you iz lying” of academia.

telltale DNA

actual evidence

in the ancient populations because its sample size is “extremely small.”

fuck-all

geneticist David Reich of Harvard Medical School in Boston and leader of the Nature team, agrees, noting that the genomes from the 17 ancient relict populations are incomplete

they know this before doing it

and provide very low coverage.

Planned, totally planned. They don’t care about the methodology, only what they falsely conclude and agree to, ahead of time.

Well, when in doubt, the guy getting the most coverage in the Guardian is lying.

His own paper also finds this mysterious Australo-Melanesian DNA in some of the same modern populations 

Look for evidence, it pops up!

reaches a different conclusion about its source. His team analyzed partial genome sequences of 106 Native Americans from 25 populations in Central and South America, and compared them with DNA data from 197 populations from outside the Americas.

Which is the better method, I dunno.

through a now extinct population they call “Population Y”

note no stupid new naming labels for the idiot-papers

that may have lived somewhere in East Asia and contributed genes to both very early Paleoamericans and to Australo-Melanesians.

That fits!

That fits the evidence around us so much better!

Let’s go back to 2001

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11543902

We have been studying polymorphisms of HLA class I and II genes in East Asians including Buryat in Siberia, Mongolian, Han Chinese, Man Chinese, Korean Chinese, South Korean, and Taiwan indigenous populations in collaboration with many Asian scientists.

Regional populations in Japan, Hondo-Japanese, Ryukyuan, and Ainu, were also studied. HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 gene frequencies were subjected to the correspondence analysis and calculation of DA distances.

See JF’s video what is white? for genetic distances.

The correspondence analysis demonstrated several major clusters of human populations in the world.

Hmm.

“Mongoloid” populations were highly diversified, in which several clusters such as Northeast Asians, Southeast Asians, Oceanians, and Native Americans were observed. Interestingly, an indigenous population in North Japan, Ainu, was placed relatively close to Native Americans in the correspondence analysis.

Think back to Mr They Can’t Be Related To Japanese, where’s the evidence?
One google search, you POS.

Distribution of particular HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles and haplotypes was also analyzed in relation to migration and dispersal routes of ancestral populations. A number of alleles and haplotypes showed characteristic patterns of regional distribution. For example, B39-HR5-DQ7 (B*3901-DRB1*1406-DQB1*0301) was shared by Ainu and Native Americans.

specific alleles not good enough for you?

They are more Japanese than they could ever be Siberian.

A24-Cw8-B48 was commonly observed in Taiwan indigenous populations, Maori in New Zealand, Orochon in Northeast China, Inuit, and Tlingit.

subraces also apply in Asians, true

These findings further support the genetic link between East Asians and Native Americans. We have proposed that various ancestral populations in East Asia, marked by different HLA haplotypes, had migrated and dispersed through multiple routes. Moreover, relatively small genetic distances and the sharing of several HLA haplotypes between Ainu and Native Americans suggest that these populations are descendants of some Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia.

So-called modern “Native Americans” are genetic Asians, deal with it.

We can look one allele at a time.

We can specify the types of Asian they are and are not.

Now for some Asian slavery to round things off, I’m tired.

There are plenty of studies like this if you actually cared to look.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707606557

However, this, together with other odd features of the island’s Y-chromosomal gene pool, is best explained as the genetic impact of a 19th century Peruvian slave trade in Polynesia.

These findings underscore the need to account for history before turning to prehistory

you can’t say that’s ancient unless modern is discounted entirely

and the value of archival research to understanding modern genetic diversity. Although the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on the distribution of modern genetic diversity has been well appreciated, this represents the first study investigating the impact of this underappreciated episode on genetic diversity in the Pacific.