Problems with “Gladiator diet” rhetoric

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4198250/

  1. they were slaves, restricted diet
  2. they were poor, no choice in diet
  3. they were often diseased, multiple
  4. they’re studying the ones bad at the job, enough to die
  5. there’s no such thing as one gladiator, they weren’t even mostly male.

Gladiators in practice wanted to put on a little fat at least to protect the major organs from spears and knives. Do not carry modern Ho-wood assumptions to the ancient world.

The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed.

aka most of those tested were NOT gladiators

yet included?

All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

Are you telling me they sucked down on almond butter? Legumes, really?

Beverages are not food.

And it might’ve been to stave off infection (use for ash).

Due to the preferred uptake of Ca compared to Sr and the resulting “biopurification” of Ca in the food chain, it was long believed that Sr functions as a dietary plant-to-meat ratio indicator . It was assumed that a high Sr amount in the bone reflected a high vegetarian intake, and a low Sr amount indicated a diet rich in meat. Therefore, studies of Sr/Ca-ratios for the reconstruction of diet were introduced in 1965 for extinct animals and in the 1970s and early 1980s for prehistoric humans . Since then, numerous studies have dealt with this subject. Thus, we refer to detailed review articles(e. g. by , and ). Two major issues with this concept of diet reconstruction have to be highlighted:

Assumed?

First, the dietary plant-to-meat ratio approach experienced a major correction by Burton and Wright . They showed that Sr/Ca ratios in bone reflect the Sr/Ca ratio of the strongest Ca supplier rather than the whole plant-to-meat ratio of a multicomponent diet. This limits future Sr/Ca studies to identifying the major Ca source of the diet.

A second major drawback for the investigation of trace elements arose from the fact that bones buried in soil undergo diagenetic alterations . Many attempts were made to identify and quantify diagenetic changes to Sr/Ca-ratio with the target to reconstruct original Sr/Ca-ratios (summarized in ). Because of the complexity and variability of soil processes, this seems impossible up to now. Therefore, the scientific focus has shifted from trace elements to stable isotopes for diet reconstruction in recent years. Only few combined studies on trace elements and stable isotopes are available. Though we believe that trace element and stable isotope investigations complement each other and have the potential to draw a more comprehensive picture of ancient diets.

it gets worse

run while you still can

The bone sample preparation followed a protocol developed for spectroscopic trace element analysis in bone or teeth . First, the bones were superficially cleaned with tap water and dried at room temperature.

Archaeologists are idiots with spades, exhibit A.

TAP WATER.

ELEMENT ANALYSIS CLEANING.

THEY USE FUCKING TAP WATER.

on ancient samples, my stars

leave it out on the counter near students, it’ll be fiiiiiine

All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food.

i.e. Not fucking kale.

Pliny the Elder reported in his Naturalis historia that barley (hordearii), a C3 plant, was a main component of the gladiators nutrition which matches our findings . However, most NG individuals apparently also had C3 plants as a staple food since no statistical difference is detectable.

apparently? no ‘statistical’ difference? detectable?

whose job dis?

Me marking papers, the flashbacks.

A few individuals show more positive δ13C values. The most probable cause for this is an increased consumption of C4 plants such as millet.

probable how

no

how about no

keep filling in those gaps with BS, I’ll wait

Millet was an important nutrition crop in Eurasia and its consumption has already been verified in several ancient societies by stable isotope investigations , especially since the Middle Bronze Age in Italy  published similar δ13C data for imperial Rome Isola Sacra (−18.8‰ versus −18.9‰ here). They mention ancient literature in which millet is described as an animal food and as less desirable for human consumption under “normal” circumstances.

So animal feed. Not suggested for modern humans. K.

In their study, the δ13C values of the faunal remains are more negative than those of the humans, so it was assumed that the terrestrial herbivores basically fed on C3 plants. Although animal bones have not been investigated yet for reference in our study, we agree with .

wut

Cunts with spades, I swear.

Yeah just throw some tap water on it then wonder about the calcium. It’s fine!

If the δ13C values were caused by the consumption of millet-fed animals, then higher δ15N values would be expected for the Ephesus population.

If. I read a scientific analysis of elements for a fucking IF.

It’s like grading a philosophy paper. IF.

If I were Batman.

One of the individuals with a rather strong signal for C4 plants, a δ13C value of −17.8, belongs to the gladiator group (EPH-DAM 187/93 rFEM 6) (Fig. 3).

One person?

One?

Freud had larger sample sizes!

Another gladiator (EPH-DAM 248/93 rFEM 6) and one female (EPH-DAM 72/93 rFEM-1) show at least hints for a mixed signal of C3 and C4 plants.

Kill me now.

show – ok

at least – numbers?

hints – no

Fuck off and die. NO.

mixed signal – a pox on your family line

This individual is also extraordinary as she was the only female to be found in the gladiator cemetery.

No.

This leads to two hypotheses: 1) these individuals had a different diet than the others

no shit Sherlock

or 2) they came from other geographical regions with a more C4 plant-based diet and migrated to Ephesus.

and died before leaving, let’s tell everyone to eat like slaves who died young!

The second one is more probable because the extensive cultivation of millet is only evidenced since the Early Byzantine Period, ca. AD450, for this region . Comparable δ13C data from Roman North Africa (Tunisia) with a mean of −17.7‰ were published by . However, their combined δ13C and δ15N values suggest a significant amount of dietary protein intake from marine resources.

You slipped that one in there, didn’t you?

Last sentence of section. Thought I wouldn’t notice, but I did.

An ancient cookbook written by Apicius which contains a collection of Roman recipes, suggests that seafood was probably consumed in Ephesus. Fish was most likely eaten as fish sauce (garum), but also cooked and salted.

Yeah another thing Whites invented.

 In contrast to this, the two individuals with the highest values are from the gladiator group, too (EPH-DAM 146/93 rFEM 1 and EPH-DAM 76/93 rFEM 2). That indicates a regular consumption of animal proteins and a lower intake of legumes. Within the gladiator group, the isotope data extend over more than one trophic level for δ15N but also for δ13C. This leads to the conclusion that the individuals from the gladiator cemetery were a very heterogeneous group who consumed different kind of foods.

Too pissed, you read the rest.

The meat values simply don’t show up because their methodological test is biased to conceal it with legume intake.

Pro-hook-up culture, 1925

Become a manwhore at college and marry a ho!

Degeneracy will all be rewarded in the end!

(look at Harry’s dead-eye stare for how that turns out)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Plastic_Age_(film)

The sexual revolution just made it more obvious.

You know it’s bad when you’re on the parent’s side.

You see, by encouraging vice among men, they have no moral authority to refuse slutty women as wives.

A tale of two category errors

  1. Modern theory name is similar or theoretically comparable to historical theory name e.g. Victorian patriarchy is Roman patriarchy is pre-civilization European tribal patriarchy. [no] Further, it applied in all areas for an easily labelled period of time. [just no*]
  2. Wings actually apply to non-economic questions instead of the way laws are made – issue by issue.

2b- For example, a Marxist (all-Left, not just socialists) and a capitalist (all-Right) are equally likely to want OUT of the EU for entirely separate reasons. e.g. The Left doesn’t want to be drafted into an army and die for their political masters. Nor do they want a flood of competition from other countries, where those people are also helped at the direct expense of the domestic poor, a geographic lottery. The Right doesn’t want their culture of moneymaking to be dictated by overlords. They want to expand trade and invest without the interference of multicultural conflict clogging up planning permissions, terrorism scaring consumers, the political PR hot potato of treading the Party line and at personal cost, obeying the Imperialist ambition of the ever-expanding Empire that is the EU.

Like, no shit, coins have two sides. Same coin, motherfuckers.

*non sequitur

For instance, non-economic questions can be referencing biology, more valid for decision-making purposes.

Economic outcomes to non-economic social policy and societal culture. But whether it’s good or not morally has nothing to do with whether it makes you money, Goldstein. 

I feel like I’m always sounding stupid, explaining things on THAT level.

All you need is that picture. National Socialists were Socialist, big whoop.

Kinda like the UK forcing workers to buy into retirement funds i.e. PLCs in the stock market, that’s left-wing.

But they wanted to be international or supranational socialists i.e. the EU.

Nobody cared when they kept their own borders. Nobody mentions this.

After they invaded Austria and Poland, they weren’t really National anymore, were they?

That’s exactly the time everyone hated them. Nationalists don’t want to fuck with other nations, they do not want to be held responsible for their problems.

The opposite of nationalist is colonialist or expansionist. Modern term: globalist.

A better Q: were the Nazis globalist?

Were they nationalist when they invaded France?

Were they still nationalist when the Panzers rolled into Paris?

At which point would they cease being ‘nationalist’? 1 invasion. All nations minus one? Total world domination with Reich open borders policy? Because open borders are only possible within an Empire.

Easy test: how many socialists wanted to join the military versus sit back with champagne safe in The Party?

UBI as if I’m five: you need to pay me for existing or else.

aka Protection Racket.

Ask: is this a protection racket? That’s left wing.

Teachers’ unions HATE THEM!

Need a piece of paper? You sure?

Moneyball your education.

http://www.openculture.com/free_certificate_courses

Delicious progress.

“You can’t put a price on a good education.”

You know, you were right….

Teachers will, by and large, go the way of horse-shoe makers and coachmen.

Protip: I know a lot of people who do these. Take 2 fun courses (they can be zany) for every 4 serious ones.

Fascism, historically

Funny to see illiterate Americans make assumptions about what ‘fascism’ is.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascist_Manifesto

(she says, linking to wikipedia)

Plot twist: women (and poor men) were empowered as citizens.

Politically, the Manifesto calls for:

  • Universal suffrage with a lowered voting age to 18 years, and voting and electoral office eligibility for all age 25 and up;
  • Proportional representation on a regional basis;
  • Voting for women (which was then opposed by most other European nations);
  • Representation at government level of newly created national councils by economic sector;
  • The abolition of the Italian Senate (at the time, the Senate, as the upper house of parliament, was by process elected by the wealthier citizens, but were in reality direct appointments by the king. It has been described as a sort of extended council of the crown);
  • The formation of a national council of experts for labor, for industry, for transportation, for the public health, for communications, etc. Selections to be made of professionals or of tradesmen with legislative powers, and elected directly to a general commission with ministerial powers.

Scientists in power is a fascist view.

In labor and social policy, the Manifesto calls for:

  • The quick enactment of a law of the state that sanctions aneight-hour workdayfor all workers;
  • Aminimum wage;
  • The participation of workers’ representatives in the functions of industry commissions;
  • To show the same confidence in the labor unions (that prove to be technically and morally worthy) as is given to industry executives or public servants;
  • Reorganization of the railways and the transport sector;
  • Revision of the draft law on invalidity insurance;
  • Reduction of the retirement age from 65 to 55.

Fascists are just socialists that give a damn about your vices and private life.

In military affairs, the Manifesto advocates:

  • Creation of a short-service national militia with specifically defensive responsibilities;
  • Armaments factories are to be nationalized;
  • A peaceful but competitive foreign policy.

In finance, the Manifesto advocates:

  • A strong progressive tax on capital (envisaging a “partial expropriation” of concentrated wealth);
  • The seizure of all the possessions of the religious congregations and the abolition of all the bishoprics, which constitute an enormous liability on the Nation and on the privileges of the poor;

The religious should support being poor, because they want to be holy.

We have state-funded religious schools. In the 21st century.

  • Revision of all contracts for military provisions;
  • The revision of all military contracts and the seizure of 85 percent of the profits therein.

These early positions reflected in the Manifesto would later be characterized by Mussolini in the Doctrine of Fascism as “a series of pointers, forecasts, hints which, when freed from the inevitable matrix of contingencies, were to develop in a few years time into a series of doctrinal positions entitling Fascism to rank as a political doctrine differing from all others, past or present.”[3]

1976 flu scare

and fraud

https://www.vaccinationinformationnetwork.com/60-minutes-on-the-1976-swine-flu-vaccine-fiasco/

Those who don’t learn from history are doomed to repeat it.

Later is too late to be skeptical.

Emotional appeal is not an argument. This is scientism.

“Herd immunity” fails, even at 100% (impossible uptake figure), it cannot be falsified. It is not science.

It is unfalsifiable socialist lies. Remember this case study with every ‘flu’.
There is no null hypothesis, it’s a myth. Like the tongue map.
Kinda like the political term “climate change” isn’t scientific, because ‘change’ has no H0 (null hypothesis).