Are Individualistic Societies Less Equal? Evidence from the Parasite Stress Theory of Values
[This is how you don’t do a study on cultural differences.]
It is widely believed that individualistic societies, which emphasize personal freedom, award social
status for accomplishment, and favor minimal government intervention, are more prone to higher
levels of income inequality compared to more collectivist societies, which value conformity, loyalty, and tradition and favor more interventionist policies.
And tradition doesn’t mean, what you think it means i.e. nepotism, grandpa never retires.
The results in this paper, however, challenge this conventional view.
Great, nurture people.
Drawing on a rich literature in biology and evolutionary psychology, we test the provocative Parasite Stress Theory of Values,
because low fitness =
which suggests a possible link between the historical prevalence of infectious diseases, the cultural dimension of individualism-collectivism and differences in income inequality across countries.
Specifically, in a two-stage least squares analysis, we use the historical prevalence of infectious diseases as an instrument for individualistic values, which, in the next stage, predict the level of income inequality, measured by the net GINI coefficient from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database (SWIID). Our findings suggest that societies with more individualistic values have significantly lower net income inequality.
Make your mind up.
White man bad or good.
The results are robust even after controlling for a number of confounding factors such as economic development, legal origins, religion, human capital, other cultural values, economic institutions, and geographical controls.
Oh, I brought screencap.
Shit, a diagram of people who wash their hands after.
Could this have something to do with infection? or…. IQ?
The Parasite Stress Theory of Values, which was first introduced by Thornhill and Fincher
(2014), proposes that regions with high levels of parasitic stress were more likely to naturally
select personality traits such as xenophobia, neophobia, ethnocentrism, and, more generally,
values that disregard the well-being of out-group members, including those at the lower
end of the economic ladder. Traits like xenophobia and neophobia, for instance, not only
reduce economic transactions between groups and across-regions, but reward conformity
and obedience toward traditional order and discourage novelty
As a result, societies with high degree of pathogenic stress were more likely to develop cultural traits associated with collectivist values (Fincher et al., 2008) that view negatively ideas that can potentially threaten the established social norms.
Societies too thick to believe germ theory contaminate their water supply and get infected?
To this day?
See they wanna admit the collectivism but spin it.
From an evolutionary standpoint, these behavioral strategies were mechanisms to stop the spread of
The required amount of immigrants is zero and mercantile transportation didn’t exist for millennia.
The Chinese seemed happy to swarm America as soon as it was legal.
Where did black death come from? Which continent?
Theoretically, then, the effect of individualistic values on income inequality is ambiguous.
Since the individualism-collectivism component loads positively on values such as individual freedom, opportunity, achievement, advancement, recognition, and loads negatively on values such as harmony, cooperation, and relations with supervisors, Gorodnichenko and Roland (2012) note that, broadly defined, individualism emphasizes the values of personal freedom, affective autonomy, and achievement. In that sense, individualistic cultures award social status to personal achievements such as innovation, discoveries, or artistic achievements with high social status (Gorodnichenko and Roland, 2012).
How terrible. /s
A stylized empirical fact that emerged from a series of follow-up studies is that developed and industrialized nations are more likely to be associated with greater prevalence of individualism whereas less developed, traditional and agricultural societies are more likely to preserve collectivistic values (Hofstede et al., 1991).
“less developed” = low IQ
maybe the culture led to the economic prosperity and industry? big if true?
What is this a map of, children?
a) places people want to live
b) places white people live
c) cultures that aren’t shit-holes
d) cultures where capitalism is technically allowed
e) countries that won’t suffer comparatively in the next collapse
f) all of the above.
It’s F, for Fuck China, rates should’ve gone up decades ago.
You read the rest.
Autonomous (individualistic) cultures are ones where people are seen as autonomous and independent entities. In such cultures, people are encouraged to cultivate and express their own preferences, feelings, ideas, and abilities, and derive meaning from their own uniqueness. Embedded (collectivist) cultures, on the other hand, are ones where people find meaning by identifying with the group, participating in a shared way of life, and striving towards shared goals.
Where do you want to live?
In short, do you want to suppress, oppress and smother the smart, gifted people?
You can say Japan and China are smarter until you look at their pension plans.
I’ve posted about them.
Israel’s IQ is 95 on a good day.
Southeast Asians (Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Borneo)
about right, almost a whole deviation down
South Asians (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, the Gulf states, the Near East, and Turkey)
Yes, let us fear them.
Eastern and Southeastern Europe is 95
Hispanics in America 89
I’m scared, are you?
Welfare, the important metric.
Why count Asia as two? Why all the lies? Why?
You count all Europeans?