Neanderthals’ DNA legacy linked to modern ailments

Full from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2014/01/neanderthals-dna-legacy-linked-to-modern-ailments/ ;

Remnants of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans are associated with genes affecting type 2 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, lupus, biliary cirrhosis, and smoking behavior. They also concentrate in genes that influence skin and hair characteristics. At the same time, Neanderthal DNA is conspicuously low in regions of the X chromosome and testes-specific genes.

The research, led by Harvard Medical School (HMS) geneticists and published Jan. 29 in Nature, suggests ways in which genetic material inherited from Neanderthals has proven both adaptive and maladaptive for modern humans. (A related paper by a separate team was published concurrently in Science.)

“Now that we can estimate the probability that a particular genetic variant arose from Neanderthals, we can begin to understand how that inherited DNA affects us,” said David Reich, professor of genetics at HMS and senior author of the paper.

In the past few years, studies by groups including Reich’s have revealed that present-day people of non-African ancestry trace an average of about 2 percent of their genomes to Neanderthals — a legacy of interbreeding between humans and Neanderthals that the team previously showed occurred between 40,000 to 80,000 years ago. (Indigenous Africans have little or no Neanderthal DNA because their ancestors did not breed with Neanderthals, who lived in Europe and Asia.)

Several teams have since been able to flag Neanderthal DNA at certain locations in the non-African human genome, but until now, there was no survey of Neanderthal ancestry across the genome and little understanding of the biological significance of that genetic heritage.

“The story of early human evolution is captivating in itself, yet it also has far-reaching implications for understanding the organization of the modern human genome,” said Irene A. Eckstrand of the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of General Medical Sciences, which partially funded the research. “Every piece of this story that we uncover tells us more about our ancestors’ genetic contributions to modern human health and disease.”

Deserts and oases

Reich and his colleagues — including Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany — analyzed genetic variants in 846 people of non-African heritage, 176 people from sub-Saharan Africa, and a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal whose high-quality genome sequence the team published in 2013.

The most powerful information the researchers used to determine whether a gene variant came from a Neanderthal was if it appeared in some non-Africans and the Neanderthal, but not in the sub-Saharan Africans.

Using this and other types of information, the team found that some areas of the modern non-African human genome were rich in Neanderthal DNA, which may have been helpful for human survival, while other areas were more like “deserts” with far less Neanderthal ancestry than average.

The barren areas were the “most exciting” finding, said first author Sriram Sankararaman of HMS and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT. “It suggests the introduction of some of these Neanderthal mutations was harmful to the ancestors of non-Africans and that these mutations were later removed by the action of natural selection.”

The team showed that the areas with reduced Neanderthal ancestry tend to cluster in two parts of our genomes: genes that are most active in the male germline (the testes) and genes on the X chromosome. This pattern has been linked in many animals to a phenomenon known as hybrid infertility, where the offspring of a male from one subspecies and a female from another have low or no fertility.

“This suggests that when ancient humans met and mixed with Neanderthals, the two species were at the edge of biological incompatibility,” said Reich, who is also a senior associate member of the Broad Institute and an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Present-day human populations, which can be separated from one another by as much as 100,000 years (such as West Africans and Europeans), are fully compatible with no evidence of increased male infertility. In contrast, ancient human and Neanderthal populations apparently faced interbreeding challenges after 500,000 years of evolutionary separation.

“It is fascinating that these types of problems could arise over that short a time scale,” Reich said.

A lasting heritage

The team also measured how Neanderthal DNA present in human genomes today affects keratin production and disease risk.

Neanderthal ancestry is increased in genes affecting keratin filaments. This fibrous protein lends toughness to skin, hair, and nails and can be beneficial in colder environments by providing thicker insulation, said Reich. “It’s tempting to think that Neanderthals were already adapted to the non-African environment and provided this genetic benefit to humans,” he speculated.

The researchers also showed that nine previously identified human genetic variants known to be associated with specific traits likely came from Neanderthals. These variants affect diseases related to immune function and also some behaviors, such as the ability to stop smoking. The team expects that more variants will be found to have Neanderthal origins.

The team has already begun trying to improve their human genome ancestry results by analyzing multiple Neanderthals instead of one. Together with colleagues in Britain, they have developed a test that can detect most of the approximately 100,000 mutations of Neanderthal origin they discovered in people of European ancestry; they are conducting an analysis in a biobank containing genetic data from half a million Britons.

I VOLUNTEER.

“I expect that this study will result in a better and more systematic understanding of how Neanderthal ancestry affects variation in human traits today,” said Sankararaman.

As another next step, the team is studying genome sequences from people from Papua New Guinea to build a database of genetic variants that can be compared to those of Denisovans, a third population of ancient humans that left most of its genetic traces in Oceania but little in mainland Eurasia.

How did I find this story? Funny story.
A moron on tumblr who doesn’t understand evolution. For lolz;

SJWsdon'tdoDarwinwtfhowfacepalmingsrsly
No one told them Neanderthals had high IQs and ginger hair. Hush. Don’t spoil it for them.
Let them drone on about discredited Afrocentrist ‘racial purity’ pipedreams. And evolution is a constant process for the record. “We are changing the main narrative. Neanderthals were just as adaptable and in many ways, simply victims of their own success.” How’s Africa doing on the global scale compared to every other country? Still rape and murder capital of the world? Hmm.

Modern humans still bred with Neanderthals

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn26435-thoroughly-modern-humans-interbred-with-neanderthals.html

(And killed, and ate.)

The oldest DNA of a modern human ever to be sequenced shows that the Homo sapiens who interbred with the Neanderthals were very modern – not just anatomically but with modern behaviour including painting, modern tools, music and jewellery.

Some previous estimates had placed the first interspecies liaison much earlier, before the emergence of these features. The new DNA sequence shows it actually happened in the middle of an age called the Initial Upper Palaeolithic, when there was an explosion of modern human culture.

– because of them. They taught us.

About 2 per cent of many people’s genomes today is made up of Neanderthal DNA, a result of interbreeding between the two species that can be seen in everyone except people from sub-Saharan Africa. The so-called Ust’-Ishim man, named after the town in western Siberia where he was found, carries a similar proportion of Neanderthal DNA in his genome as present-day Eurasians, and a combination of radiocarbon and genetic dating shows he died only about 45,000 years ago.

…The Initial Upper Palaeolithic was a period around 50,000 years ago when complex stone and bone tools appeared across Eurasia, along with body ornamentation like pierced shells and animal teeth, pigments and even musical instruments, says team member Tom Higham of the University of Oxford. It is unknown which human-like species made these sophisticated artefacts, but the finding that Ust’-Ishim man was in Siberia at this time means that it could have been modern humans, he says.

It isn’t. You know it isn’t.

“This is very exciting research that shows again the remarkable power of ancient DNA analysis to help solve seemingly intractable questions in human evolution science,” says Darren Curnoe from the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia.

By comparing Ust’-Ishim’s genome to various groups of modern and ancient humans, the researchers are filling in gaps in the map of initial human migrations around the globe. They found that he is as genetically similar to present-day East Asians as to ancient genomes found in Western Europe and Siberia, suggesting that the population he was part of split from the ancestors of both Europeans and East Asians, prior to their divergence from each other.

Uhuh…

“He represents a group that settled Siberia and then disappeared without leaving descendants,” says Curnoe. “This tells us that as early humans left Africa and settled Eurasia they weren’t all successful. There were more populations than we thought, some making no contribution to living people at all.” He notes this could make it difficult to interpret human fossils found in Eurasia, since we cannot assume that they are our ancestors.

Fuck. You.
There’s no reason to bring Africa into this at all, yet you do. There is negative evidence that Africa was NOT involved. Fuck. You.

But while Ust’-Ishim man does not appear to have any modern-day direct descendants living today, he is more genetically similar to present-day East Asians than to present-day Europeans. This finding is consistent with a recently proposed theory that present-day Europeans may have got some of their ancestry from later groups that weren’t part of the initial migration into the area. “It supports that very strongly,” says Reich, one of the researchers who developed the idea.

Yes, Europe is special.
See all our culture for further information.

Homo sapiens is believed to have taken on Neanderthal DNA from at least two bouts of interbreeding. While sub-Saharan Africans have no Neanderthal DNA, Asian populations have more than Europeans. [DS: cough cough IQ]

Exactly, the Africa comment was wrong. There is a LACK of evidence, a definitive NO.

“We know that there are likely to have been at least two admixture events into the ancestors of present-day people – the shared event early during modern human migration out of Africa, and a second event into the ancestors of present-day Asians,” says Kelso.

How are you so fucking stupid to keep dragging Out of Africa into this?
We have proof for the latter. Genomic proof.
There is negative evidence for the former. No genetic ties whatsoever. And still, you cling.

Because there are only a few of these longer stretches, they were unable to precisely date when this later interbreeding may have happened. But whatever the date, it seems humans and Neanderthals found each other irresistible, or at least mated with each other fairly commonly, whenever we inhabited the same areas. “The timing is most likely simply a result of the fact that this is where the two groups overlapped geographically and temporally,” says Kelso.

Rather fair-skinned, aren’t they? Didn’t they have red hair? Isn’t that a recessive trait?
So, if these guys came from Africa AT ALL, they couldn’t possibly have that many recessive traits.

Out of Africa has been repeatedly demonstrated as false because they keep having to add to it. It’s now Out of Africa more than once, which defeats the core of theory, a single migration pattern!
Multi-regional Hypothesis is supported by all the evidence! All of it! It predicted all these ‘surprising’ migration flows and multiple forms of ‘human’ genome!

In 2000, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of “Mungo Man 3” (LM3) of ancient Australia was published indicating that Mungo Man was an extinct subspecies that diverged before the most recent common ancestor of contemporary humans. The results, if correct, supports the multiregional origin of modern humans hypothesis.[27][28]

and from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recent_African_origin_of_modern_humans#Competing_hypotheses

The multiregional hypothesis, initially proposed by Milford Wolpoff, holds that the evolution of humans from H. erectus at the beginning of the Pleistocene 1.8 million years BP has been within a single, continuous worldwide population. Proponents of multiregional origin reject the assumption of an infertility barrier between ancient Eurasian and African populations of Homo. Multiregional proponents point to the fossil record and genetic evidence in chromosomal DNA.

You mean, actual science.

One study suggested that at least 5% of the human modern gene pool can be attributed to ancient admixture, which in Europe would be from the Neanderthals.[74] But the study also suggests that there may be other reasons why humans and Neanderthals share ancient genetic lineages.[75][76]

All this new evidence into Neanderthals show these doubters of MRH are wrong.

The bones of contention in anthropology

A wide swathe of our understanding of human and human-like origins is limited by practical factors. Chief among those is excavation permissions. London has full layers of history underneath it, but when any new site is found it is usually kept a secret to keep renovation costs down (no need to bring in experts for removal). It used to be that the first modern archeological digs were in Africa, because the land is so undeveloped anyway, it was cheap, and later in the Middle East (primarily the Victorian’s obsession with Egypt).

Scientific theories follow the evidence, or they should do, in theory.

Due to this constraint, OOA, which stands for the Out of Africa model was developed. This theory called Africa the Cradle of Life for all of humanity, long before we had a proper knowledge of genetics. It was useful to the Victorians (yes, it’s a Victorian theory) to support their practice of slavery and the expansion of the Empire to assist the ‘devolved’, later “noble savages”, as part of the Christian mission, which held all peoples to be worthy of help as long as they accepted God’s word.

The tribes and small villages encountered were backward in many ways. Witchcraft, cannibalism, torture, gang-rape…

When the passage to the Orient (Asia) was fully opened and easily accessible, archeology began in full there too. Denisovans were discovered, a highly advanced race on par with Neanderthals. We’d now call them Eurasian, geographically. No one is certain what happened to them, a combination of war and outbreeding (miscegenation). To this day, plenty of Europeans and Asians carry traces of Denisovan DNA, as non-Africans tend to carry traces of Neanderthal. The latter was different enough from modern humans, Homo Sapiens to merit classification as a distinct species, although given new knowledge of interbreeding with Europeans primarily, this is incorrect. You see, the species/racial divide is created by fertility potential. As Neanderthals could and did interbreed with us, they could not correctly be considered a separate species, but a race of humanity. The same goes for Denisovans, and they seem as advanced in some ways as Neanderthals, despite the scant information we have on them. Recently, Denisovans have been inaccurately subsumed into the Homo Sapiens classification because they raised uncomfortable questions about intelligence and their carbon dating, which contradicts the OOA model.

OOA has been rewritten a number of times by frauds now in an effort to retain exorbitant foreign aid funding to Africa with the excuse that we owe Africa our existence as the Cradle of Life. The facts no longer support this. In fact, the negative evidence of non-African DNA at all completely refutes OOA to any true scientific mind observing. Its objective existence is proof of the fraud, yet it is still pushed as fact because of the foreign interest in keeping the NGO money flowing. The theory supported by the evidence is the MRH or Multi-Regional Hypothesis. MRH is exactly what it sounds like, there were many races which developed across all/multiple continents and most of these remain to this day while others (Denisovan, Neanderthal) were driven to extinction. OOA is to anthropology what creationism is to biology. With MRH, however, these different races still living would each require public acknowledgement and protection. Savvy readers know that probably isn’t going to happen.

Either humanity is a very broad umbrella term encompassing the entire spectrum of intellect and ability, or we must ignore most forensic evidence since the 1800s to keep the hippies happy.