Estrogen and lifelong brain health, testosterone fraud

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26109339

Estrogen facilitates higher cognitive functions by exerting effects on brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Estrogen induces spinogenesis and synaptogenesis in these two brain regions and also initiates a complex set of signal transduction pathways via estrogen receptors (ERs). Along with the classical genomic effects mediated by activation of ER α and ER β, there are membrane-bound ER α, ER β, and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) that can mediate rapid nongenomic effects. All key ERs present throughout the body are also present in synapses of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This review summarizes estrogen actions in the brain from the standpoint of their effects on synapse structure and function, noting also the synergistic role of progesterone. We first begin with a review of ER subtypes in the brain and how their abundance and distributions are altered with aging and estrogen loss (e.g., ovariectomy or menopause) in the rodent, monkey, and human brain. As there is much evidence that estrogen loss induced by menopause can exacerbate the effects of aging on cognitive functions, we then review the clinical trials of hormone replacement therapies and their effectiveness on cognitive symptoms experienced by women. Finally, we summarize studies carried out in nonhuman primate models of age- and menopause-related cognitive decline that are highly relevant for developing effective interventions for menopausal women. Together, we highlight a new understanding of how estrogen affects higher cognitive functions and synaptic health that go well beyond its effects on reproduction.

Men dosing testosterone are called meatheads for a reason, they would logically throw off their other hormones and functionally retard themselves. Because this ONE time, you can trust the pill people. No IQ studies in testosterone supplementing men, I guess there’s a good reason. They just forgot?

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330791/

The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. 

You’re not trying to rig it at all, huh?

Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity.

Holy shit.

That’s hilarious.

Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

Not known.

a very important study in rhesus monkeys showed that pharmacological castration reduced and testosterone supplementation normalized anxiety levels (Suarez-Jimenez et al., ).

on the other hand, in both men and women, testosterone supplementation leads to improvement of depressive symptoms (Pope et al., ; Miller et al., ). However, not all interventional studies confirmed the anti-depressant effect of testosterone. At least in one published randomized controlled trial, the effects of testosterone were comparable to placebo effects (Seidman et al., ). Similarly, not all observational studies show a consistent picture. At least in one small study, depressive women had higher testosterone (Weber et al., ).

Another experiment on intact rats revealed that the effect of testosterone on depression is dose-dependent (Buddenberg et al., ).

Over the counter won’t work.

During the productive ages and even in early adulthood, men generally outperform women in spatial abilities (Linn and Petersen, )

Even for a few years you’re in college? Is that it?

Spatial thing is probably due to error, thus would be discounted under a valid method.

Error rate as well as the reaction time negatively correlated with testosterone (Hooven et al., ).

In another study, actual testosterone was not associated with spatial abilities, but prenatal testosterone correlated positively with spatial abilities in women (Kempel et al., ).

Congratulations, you’re on the female level. Apply your non-toxic internet cream.

In line with these findings is the lack of an association between actual salivary testosterone levels and mental rotation in men and women (Puts et al., ).

Actual science, no replication issue.

However, in a large observational study analyzing spatial abilities in adult men from various age categories, low testosterone was associated with better spatial visualization (Yonker et al., ).

Actual science, no replication issue.

Plus multiple ages in ADULT men, important.

Good work.

In a very interesting study, it was found that in men, the pubertal concentrations of testosterone are negatively associated with mental rotation in the adulthood (Vuoksimaa et al., ). In the same paper, the comparison of twins is reported. The twin with higher testosterone scored worse in the mental rotation tests. The results are contradictory, but may depend on the test used for the assessment of spatial abilities.

Counting fluke correct answers and not errors to force a finding is scientism. Bad method.

When virtual Morris water maze was used, a positive correlation between testosterone and spatial navigation was found in women, but not in men (Burkitt et al., ). The size of the corpus callosum seems to add complexity in the relationship between spatial abilities and testosterone (Karadi et al., ). This might be one of the causes for negative findings in studies where some of the determinants are missing (Kubranska et al., ). Another cause is likely the selection of the tested population. In gifted children, a negative correlation between salivary testosterone and spatial abilities was found (Ostatnikova et al., ).

FFS.

Negative findings are real science.

And that’s important.

In Chinese men, the accuracy in mental rotation tests was comparable to Americans, but the reaction times were longer indicating that cultural differences could add to the variability of published results (Yang et al., ).

No they didn’t rush the test out of boredom. Lower error rate, I’d bet.

Last but not least, genetic factors likely modulate the effect of testosterone. We have previously shown that at least in gifted boys, genetic polymorphisms influencing testosterone metabolism affect also its relationship to mental rotation (Celec et al., ). Especially, the CAG short tandem repeat in the exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene seems to be important for the action of testosterone and its metabolites (Nowak et al., ). Despite all complexity, the current picture indicates that the association between testosterone and spatial abilities is curvilinear and sex-dependent.

aka more is NOT better and it’s genetic, morons

In women higher testosterone is associated with better mental rotation, in men lower testosterone is associated with better spatial abilities. This seems to be true both for actual testosterone (Moffat and Hampson, ) and for prenatal testosterone (Grimshaw et al., ). Supplementation of testosterone in older men results in improvement of spatial abilities, but it is accompanied with changes in estradiol metabolism and it is likely that this interferes with modifications of spatial abilities (Janowsky et al., ).

They only studied spatial, not global, I checked.

Even in rats, testosterone administration affects the strategy of the animals in spatial tasks (Spritzer et al., ). However, the interaction between testosterone and mental rotation tests is bidirectional. It has been shown that mental rotation testing affects testosterone, at least in women (Durdiakova et al., ).

Doing smart things causes the brain to…. adapt? Really?

Does our pulse increase when we run? Some Sherlock Holmes do a fucking study.

MRI

Moreover, participants with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome presented with female-like neural activation pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating that gonadal hormone exposure rather than genetic sex itself plays role in brain functions (Van Hemmen et al., ).

Supplementing won’t work, you’re worse than the trannies. They don’t claim brain benefits.

The menstrual cycle and thus the involvement of sex hormones, including testosterone, in spatial abilities was further confirmed by Pletzer et al. In their study, error rates linked with deactivation of inferior parietal lobes and prefrontal lobes were higher during luteal phase for verbal tasks, while in the follicular phase, spatial abilities in females were confirmed (Pletzer et al., ).

One of the major factors that might explain the differences between the results of various studies is the variability of the examined populations. As mentioned above, the cultural differences, sex and age have all been shown to impact the physiological effects of testosterone. 

Duh.

Standardization in this area would surely improve our understanding of the neuroendocrinology of testosterone. More systematic research using the whole spectrum of available tools and looking at the various physiological aspects is needed. However, to be able to publish such research, journals should accept manuscripts based on the design and not on the results. Otherwise, the publication bias that is obvious in the so far published literature will continue to be a big issue. Many researchers in this field complain about negative results that are very difficult to publish in the relevant journals. The number of such unpublished observations and experiments is unknown. But based on our humble experience, the negative results will probably be more common than the published positive ones. And if the contradictory published findings are added, the picture gets even more confusing. Large systematic research projects with more cooperation between the most productive research teams is definitely needed.

You can’t because the low IQ men will complain if you publish negative findings.

e.g.

https://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/testosterone-influences-spatial-cognition-in-older-men-2

Testosterone plays a role in the organization of behavior during development. The authors examined whether testosterone could play a maintenance role in behavior as well. In a double-blind manner, verbal and visual memory, spatial cognition, motor speed, cognitive flexibility, and mood in a group of healthy older men who were supplemented for 3 months with testosterone were assessed. The increase in testosterone levels to 150% of baseline levels resulted in a significant enhancement of spatial cognition, but no change in any other cognitive domain was found.

You’ll be slightly more able to parallel park. Like when you were young.

Louder for the slow:

no change in any other

cognitive domain was found

NO IMPROVEMENT IN MEMORY

NO IMPROVEMENT IN MOTOR SPEED

NO IMPROVEMENT IN COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY

NO IMPROVEMENT IN MOOD.

Did I stutter?

Testosterone supplementation influenced the endogenous production of estradiol, and estradiol was found to have an inverse relationship to spatial cognitive performance. These results suggest that testosterone supplementation can modify spatial cognition in older men; however, it is likely that this occurs through testosterone’s influence on estrogen.

I’m sure the health effects will be golden.

Soil fertility makes a nation happy

Funny how nature do that.

Antidepressant Microbes In Soil: How Dirt Makes You Happy

“Soil microbes have been found to have similar effects on the brain and are without side effects and chemical dependency potential.”
“Did you know that there’s a natural antidepressant in soil? It’s true. Mycobacterium vaccae is the substance under study and has indeed been found to mirror the effect on neurons that drugs like Prozac provide. The bacterium is found in soil and may stimulate serotonin production, which makes you relaxed and happier. Studies were conducted on cancer patients and they reported a better quality of life and less stress. Lack of serotonin has been linked to depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar problems.

Let kids play in dirt!

(Deport the people who’d attack kids playing outside!)

The bacterium appears to be a natural antidepressant in soil and has no adverse health effects. These antidepressant microbes in soil may be as easy to use as just playing in the dirt. Most avid gardeners will tell you that their landscape is their “happy place” and the actual physical act of gardening is a stress reducer and mood lifter. The fact that there is some science behind it adds additional credibility to these garden addicts’ claims.

They were already credible since all mood is self-reported.

But okay.

The presence of a soil bacteria antidepressant is not a surprise to many of us who have experienced the phenomenon ourselves. Backing it up with science is fascinating, but not shocking, to the happy gardener. Mycobacterium antidepressant microbes in soil are also being investigated for improving cognitive function, Crohn’s disease and even rheumatoid arthritis.”

Why were the WW2 generation and prior so intelligent?

This is why things like scrubbed, sterilised food and the cozy air conditioned gym are so decadent – go outside and dig a fucking trench, you lazy worm.

There’s also a reason all soldiers worth their salt train outside. You’re not just learning the motions and showing off to a bunch of anorexic fags, you learn to move in the elements.

Gyms are for lightweights, the ancients considered them gay brothels but an alarming number of straight men bought the instawhore propaganda that so much homoerotic body obsession is manly and women like it.

Nooooooooooo.

omnia vanitas, I picture above every gym

It’s so anti-traditional, hostile to logic and artificial.

Show me one feminine woman ‘training’ in a gym. Go ahead. Doesn’t happen. Women know better, to be useful when expending our fewer calories. Ideally making money with your labour instead of straight up time wasting on asscheek validation. Very nice, move on with your life. It’s a climate controlled wimpy environment. If a slight breeze or downpour throws you off, you’re basically a child. The bulk fools nobody. The climate also demands a response, keeping all those twitch muscle fibres and instinctive movements attuned to the real world, not snowflake air conditioned HPV bench land. The HPV must be thick in the air in some places, thanks air con!

Meanwhile, nature:

“Antidepressant microbes in soil cause cytokine levels to rise, which results in the production of higher levels of serotonin. The bacterium was tested both by injection and ingestion on rats, and the results were increased cognitive ability, lower stress and better concentration on tasks than a control group.

Some of the most brittle people you’ll ever meet are broflakes who ‘missed’ their baby protein shake, it’s hilarious. Like soyboys and their burnt Starbucks excuse for a ‘coffee’. Why not suck it all from a giant titty cup and stop kidding yourself? Freud would love this. Talk about oral fixation.

Gardeners inhale the bacteria, have topical contact with it and get it into their bloodstreams when there is a cut or other pathway for infection. The natural effects of the soil bacteria antidepressant can be felt for up to 3 weeks if the experiments with rats are any indication. So get out and play in the dirt and improve your mood and your life.”

I’m tired of tolerating excuses from adults to stay indoors like you’re all afraid of nature. But oh yeah, your ‘guns’ are gonna save you in the Apocalypse, alright…

God forbid a plant scratches you though, you take a dive like a French football team and start sobbing manly tears of gym strength.

It’s unnatural to perform naturally outdoor hobbies indoors. Previously, that was confined to hospital gyms for the elderly. It’s a con. Go outside and stop hoovering up SSRIs and talking about gym endorphins. You’re there for the beauty pageant of closeted poofs. Muh gains, brah. Don’t bother growing a single fucking tomato with all those wasted calories. The gym is manual labour you pay to do.

Serotonin soil paper:
http://www.sage.edu/newsevents/news/?story_id=240785

We don’t need Big Pharma, Big Pharma needs us.

Gyms are also huge business for pussies scared of a little rain.

I doubt Podesta’s indoor gardens, with the constantly jamming water systems, are so nourishing from the soil.

Don’t do ketones, kids

If you’ve seen the company product of liquid ketones by the company that doesn’t know why its name is so hilarious to those who misread it the first three times…

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3781437/

You might be tempted to think you can cheat your KB levels.

You cannot.

For the same reason wearing stilts doesn’t make you tall.

No longitudinal studies.

Usually when you supplement, you lose natural production ability. With NTs (neurotransmitters) your uptake suffers. Then there’s the chronic conditions, as here. There’s no such thing as a nootropic because intellectual performance is largely genetic – there’s no such thing as a free lunch either. At least organic food is a possible label.

You’re better off drinking detox (laxative) tea or eating activated charcoal.
That would trigger ketogenesis and you won’t need supplements.

Even if you missed out on your fullest genetic potential, you need to keep up ALL of the healthy habits to dial in the epigenetic side. No slacking. Ever. Most suckers purchasing supplements think it’s a cheat code. Your body isn’t as stupid as your mind.

If they’re trying to sell you shit, it’s a sale pitch, not science.

This is unnatural. This is literally the cause of fat people getting Type 2 – not sugar or fat. Ketones’ fuckwittery. Your body produces them only on a glucose (food) fast because having both slowly kills you. Unless you’re fasting the entire duration you take these into your body, in which case why are you still taking this, then you’ll frazzle it. You’re overloading it. Like an obese person. You can’t avoid glucose, it’s literally food. Glycemic spikes? Even in vegetables. Enjoy your celery.

They test athletes deliberately, those are not human diets nor human exercise routines.
They have eating disorders, especially orthorexia. Try it in a normal, middle-aged population and I might be impressed. It’s like testing donkey medication on a set of purebred horses.

Tea, coffee or cocoa: which is better?

coffeeteacocoa

Inspired by this comic.

Black tea is retarded leaf water and nobody really likes green.

Black tea contains fluoride which cannot be removed.

Search fluoride Harvard.

This might be why the British have lost our fighting spirit, the more cups of black tea with fluoridated water we consume PER DAY.

Coffee is the cocaine of pussies. After a brief high, whatever you consume as your brain downregulates activity to compensate merely keeps your levels normal aka not boosted. Coffee is not a nootropic in the neurological sense. Plus the modern dosages (one serving is not a Venti barrel) fuck with your sperm.

No, literally, your sperm gets fucked up.

http://www.babymed.com/improving-his-fertility

However, large amounts of caffeine cause sperm to swim slower thereby reducing male fertility. In order to improve fertility reduce or eliminate caffeine from your daily diet while you and your partner are trying to conceive.”

Meanwhile, chocolate, drink of cannibals and philosophers…

http://www.artofmanliness.com/2012/12/17/the-surprisingly-manly-history-of-hot-cocoa/

Chocolate is as complex as wine, in fact, this is the reason for classic wine and cheese OR chocolate sessions.

Chocolate contains flavonoids, like tea, but mixed with dairy (a milk or cream base) has the same impact as what all the hipsters call Bulletproof Coffee. Only better because the cocoa fats render well with the animal fat and absorb better into the body (more important than what you ingest).

Vegan chocolate is the shit, you can get green tea flavour if you’re boring or strawberry milkshake if you’re me. Put it in your wheatgrass high estrogen smoothies if you wanna be a pussy about it.

The Enlightenment was founded on chocolate, moreso than coffee. Great scientists and Casanova, among many royals, chugged the stuff.

Hot Chocolate is the drink of the beverage master-race.
All the facts are there.

….We have options. We haz your whipped cream. We haz the marshmallows. The humble cinnamon wand. We haz da mighty wafer.
There is no come-down from a good hot chocolate. There isn’t enough sugar for a sugar crash, the dairy is light enough (genetics – only white people can properly digest dairy) that it causes no digestion issues and you can drink as many as you want without fucking your BP. You can happily mix Merlot into it. Bourbon. Vodka. Say the same about coffee.

How is this not a thing?

That and bone marrow ‘butter’. Great on garlic bread.

Modafinil doesn’t work on healthy high IQ people

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-content/uploads/Cognitive-effects-of-modafinil-in-student-volunteers-may-depend-on-IQ.pdf

It only plugs natural deficits.

These studies rarely look at true adults (fully developed brains) and long term use (and abuse).

Put it this way – you have to be pretty stupid to think a pill can make you smarter.
Look at the long-term effects of SSRIs, long thought to be safe, but they warp the receptor cells and rewire the brain – that’s permanent brain damage. They can actually cause depression – tardive dysphoria. Yes, that’s tard as in retard. This is (useless) snake oil in pill form. It’s like The Secret of pharmaceuticals. It promises social status. Snake oil pills are still being sold in supplement form alongside these ‘brain boosters’, the con couldn’t get more obvious. They’re saying it contains omega 3 and that would technically make literal snake oil a nootropic. COME ON.

glaring glare stare really oh come on you can't be serious no fucks given go away dorian gray

divinemen.com/13724/3-reasons-why-nootropics-may-be-more-snake-oil/

Dysphoria is a symptom of the bipolar. All for what was probably a minor episode of the sads. This damage may be passed onto one’s children, we don’t yet know. It could be epigenetic.

So the odds are these nootropics, which promise all the benefits of a healthy diet and sufficient sleep in a pill, will actually make the person dumber in the long run. Frankly, if they believe there’s a convenience McDonalds for smarts, they deserve it. It won’t really make much of a difference to such stupid, stupid people.

The only nootropic that really works will boost blood flow but this isn’t all good and in many of the fat lazy men who take it, could literally kill them in the long term. It increases headaches, migraines and heart conditions. Heart disease is currently the leading cause of death in men. It isn’t healthy for the body to exist in this attention heightened state over time, it’s a form of chronic physiological stress, it’s a chemical stressor. There’s really no such thing as a nootropic, it’s another sciencey-sounding lie from the supplement industry like adaptogen. These terms were created by the medical professional to boost the performance of sick people up to average level. It isn’t a global boost, it doesn’t work on everyone the same way, it will make your performance more average, not a literal boost. As in, if you’re a high performer taking these the only way you can go is down because your body is already pretty efficient and don’t mess with it. It’s already fine! We’re not upgrading a hard drive here!
Unless a person already has a medical condition (deficit, below average), these drugs will not give them a boost.
It’s like taking cold medicine when you’re healthy. It won’t make you healthier.

Duh.

snort lol laugh haha hmph derision yeah duh really uhuh mhmm princess bride

Healthy people shouldn’t be taking medication.
It will literally make them sick.
This is common sense.

I shouldn’t have to explain this.

Fine, take experimental drugs if you wanna kill yourself for a boost of about 2 IQ points tops when you can’t be asked to sleep a little more.

It’s a Ponzi for idiots. Why else do they start selling them, themselves? If it’s a serious drug, shouldn’t they encourage a reputable vendor than the medical equivalent of an Avon Girl?

p.s. I know real snake oil used to get confused with the fake popular stuff but most supplements are trash.