The amine serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine creatinine sulfate complex (5HT)] has been linked to aggression in a wide and diverse range of species, including humans (17–20). The nature of the linkage, however, is not simple, and it has proven difficult to unravel the role of the amine in the behavior. In vertebrates, lowered levels of 5HT (endogenous or experimentally induced) or changes in amine neuron function that lower the effectiveness of serotonergic neurons generally correlate with increased levels of aggression (19, 20) whereas in invertebrates, the converse is believed to be true (11–13). Genetic alterations of amine neuron function also can change aggressive behavior in animals (21–24) and in people (25–27) although, again, in most cases, it is not clear how the genetic change is linked to the behavior. For example, in humans, a mutation leading to inactivation of one form of the enzyme monoamine oxidase leads to a particular form of explosive violent behavior (26, 27). Because this enzyme is believed to be involved in further metabolism or inactivation of amines, this defect should result in elevated levels of amines, as has been seen in a knockout mutation of the monoamine oxidase enzyme in mice (21). The behavioral manifestation, however, is that generally thought to be associated with lowered levels of 5HT. Finally, direct injections of amines like 5HT into animals also cause changes in aggression, but even here the relationships are complex. For example, in ants, injections of 5HT and its precursors lower interspecific aggressiveness toward intruders but raises intraspecies aggression (28, 29).
They don’t help with “most people”
A new study published today is sure to set off another storm in the ongoing debate about the widespread prescription of antidepressants. Professor Irving Kirsch at the University of Hull and colleagues in the US and Canada report that new generation ‘SSRI’ antidepressants like Prozac or Seroxat mostly fall, “below the recommended criteria for clinical significance” (Kirsch et al. 2008). In other words, the most modern drugs prescribed for depression generally don’t work.The study was particularly interested in whether the drugs had different effects on people with different levels of depression. Here is what they found:
- Mild depression: not tested as mild depression is usually treated with a ‘talk therapy’ rather than antidepressants.
- Moderate depression: antidepressants made “virtually no difference”.
- Severe depression: antidepressants had a “small and clinically insignificant” effect.
- Most severe depression: antidepressants had a significant clinical benefit – but see below…
Antidepressant treatments and human aggression
We need more studies on that.
Aggressive behaviour is associated with negative mood and poor impulse control. Serotonin has been specifically associated with impulse regulation and deficiencies in serotonin have been linked to impulsive aggression.
Or they could learn impulse control, like previous generations.
However, aggression occurs in a social context and noradrenaline has been implicated in social motivation. Both serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants may therefore be effective in reducing aggression. The evidence for the effects of antidepressants on aggression comes from a wide range of sources but there are few controlled trials or experimental studies. Current findings point to decreases in negative mood and anger attacks and positive changes in personality traits after antidepressant treatment.
never letting them suffer, learn, grow and improve
no character development whatsoever
Clinical studies in personality disorder patients have shown some efficacy for serotonergic antidepressants in reducing irritability and impulsive aggression. Experimental work in healthy volunteers has shown both serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants to increase assertiveness and affiliative behaviour. Both may therefore decrease aggression through different routes.
Not the same thing.
Asking your boss for a raise is different than threatening him if he doesn’t.
Now, researchers at Cambridge University and UCLA have found that serotonin also plays a critical role in regulating emotions such as impulsive aggression during social decision making.
SSRI patients are still making self-destructive life choices.
It’s a band aid on a broken leg!
Impulsive aggression is the tendency to respond with hostility or aggression when faced with serious frustration.
The researchers believe their results suggest that serotonin plays a critical role in social decision making by normally keeping aggressive social responses in check.
See: angry vegans.
Under normal circumstances, serotonin works in the frontal areas of the brain to inhibit the firing of the amygdala, the almond-shaped structure that controls fear, anger and other emotional responses.
Wonder why so many of my generation are cunts?
The anger is their real personality, suppressed by the drug.
I say this from compassion, because in the eventual situation where the supply chain is interrupted for a few weeks, they’ll kill themselves in a fit of pique. (Directly or by picking fights).