as previously discussed:
A recent report published in JAMA Network Open revealed that in an analysis 38 semen samples from COVID-19 patients, 6 (four at the acute stage of infection and, alarmingly, two who were recovering) tested positive for the virus by RT-PCR.1 Importantly, at this point, we have no idea whether the actual virus was viable and infectious. Nevertheless, the possibility that this coronavirus could have a pathophysiological impact on the testes was suggested by additional data indicating that active COVID-19 infection dramatically reduced the testosterone-to-LH ratio, suggesting a significant impact on the responsiveness of Leydig cells to LH stimulation.2 In many ways, we should not be surprised by these observations because the blood-testes barrier is known to offer little defense against viral invasion, given the wide range of pathogenic viruses (HIV, hepatitis, mumps, papilloma) that are known to be capable of damaging the testes and rendering the host infertile.
Furthermore, the spike protein that gives the COVID-19 virus its corona is known to target ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), which is highly expressed by several cell types in the testes including Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, and the germ line. As a result of these factors, several opinion pieces have been published already, raising the possibility of testicular damage and infertility consequent to COVID-19 infection.2–4
However, it is also possible that the virus could gain access to male germ cells once they leave the testes, either in the epididymis or following ejaculation. In this Opinion Article, I shall be focusing on this post-testicular route of infection pointing out, for the first time, that the mature spermatozoon has all of the machinery needed to bind this virus, fuse with it, and even achieve reverse transcription of the viral RNA into proviral DNA. Such considerations raise the possibility that spermatozoa could act as potential vectors of this highly infectious disease. This happens in insects5—why not us?
IN ADDITION TO-
The other side of COVID-19 pandemic: Effects on male fertility
RECONCILE ABOVE WITH
The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major pandemic threat worldwide. According to the existing clinical data, this virus not only causes respiratory diseases and affects the lungs but also induces histopathological or functional changes in various organs like the testis and also the male genital tract. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), also ACE 2 and TMPRSS2 play an important role in the cellular entry for SARS-CoV-2.
Because the male genital system presents high ACE 2 expression, the importance of this pathway increases in COVID-19 cases. As the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the male genital system in direct or indirect ways and showed a negative impact on male reproduction, this paper focuses on the possible mechanisms underlying the damage caused by COVID-19 to the testis and also other components of the male genital tract.
SO THE SPIKE PROTEIN ALONE TARGETS ACE2, FOUND IN THE BALLS, LIKE URINE* (*THAT PART WAS A JOKE)
and they wanna force all young men to get it
college age men too
and all young women
when other papers cite it might act like an STD?
- The male genital system presents high ACE 2 expression therefore, it will be highly important to investigate and clarify the relationship between COVID-19 and the male genital tract.
I’m not even a man but I can feel my lady balls shrink reading that.
If we look at the mechanisms of these changes caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the testis, as mentioned above, this virus uses ACE 2 for entry into the cells through its surface spike (S) proteins. S proteins have two subunits, S1 and S2, which are responsible for receptor recognition and membrane fusion. Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 enters into the host cell through the binding of its C-terminal domain of the S1 subunit to ACE 2. Additionally, some studies have reported that the level of autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62 in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells has increased, suggesting a decrease in autophagy flux.
So, SARS-CoV-2 itself or via ACE 2 can directly induce or inhibit the autophagy pathway to achieve virus survival.
As a result, SARS-CoV-2 may cause male reproductive disorders by regulating the level of autophagy in male germ cells.4 On the contrary, another hypothesis is that testis degeneration in the COVID-19 cases is attributed to an increase in testicular temperature as an indirect effect of the inflammation.5
Do the jabs cause inflammation?
Can spike proteins microwave your balls? Do they nuke your little swimmers?
BUT WAIT. THERE’S MORE.
Another molecule effective at entering the cell of the SARS-CoV-2 is host proteases like transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), which cleaves the viral S protein to induce a conformational change that allows to a fusion of the virus and host cell membranes.34 TMPRSS2 is the key molecule for the successful infection process.35
This protease is more expressed in human tissues than ACE 2; co-expression of ACE 2 and TMPRSS2 has been shown in the testis, endometrium, and placenta. Researchers investigated the coexpression of these two molecules in the testis and accordingly, they found that ACE 2 is predominantly expressed in myoid cells, spermatogonia, Leydig, and Sertoli cells, while TMPRSS2 is expressed in spermatogonia and (elongated) spermatids of the testicular tissue34 (Figure 3).
I warned you about endometriosis-like function. Maybe naturally having endo is protection?
It’s lifelong inflammation. Kinda like cancer. You literally have to cut the tissues out.
Like Fight Club, they’d have to take your balls.
Shocked men aren’t more protective of their bollocks and demanding ONE safety study.
ModRNA has owners. Repossession is plausible, legally.
“Recent studies have reported that SARS-CoV-2 is easily found in human bodily fluids.35 The presence of a virus in a semen sample is still a topic of discussion and research due to the small number of studies. For example, two different studies have analyzed SARS-CoV-2 presence in semen samples and according to these studies, SARS-CoV-2 (+) semen samples were found in two patients from 23 cured patients and four patients from 15 patients in the acute phase. Another study reported that SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in the semen samples of 34 COVID-19 patients.31“
“It is also known that the prostate gland secretes prostate fluid, one of the main seminal components, and muscles of the gland help in pushing the seminal fluid through the urethra during ejaculation.31 The critical point is that, as we mentioned above, a small percentage of the prostate hillock and club cells express ACE 220 and also TMPRSS2 is highly expressed by the epithelium of the human prostate;37 so it is more likely to get SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may affect its secretions.31
These mechanisms could explain the SARS-CoV-2 (+) semen samples of the studies.23“
“If the presence of the virus in semen is definitively proved by studies, assisted reproduction techniques will also be affected. For instance, testing all male patients like HIV or Hepatitis B/C cases, and using appropriate sperm washing techniques, or paying extra attention to sperm freezing for COVID-19 positive patients.35“
“Like SARS-CoV-2, most viruses enter the human body through nasal and oral routes, and viral particles may break the blood-brain barrier.” but don’t worry about shedding?
“It has been reported that the brain cells (glial cells and neurons) also express ACE 2 receptors, making them a possible target to induce neuronal death for SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, the central nervous system plays a critical role in endocrine control and spermatogenesis.31
We have our mechanism for sterility, people.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expressing neurons from the hypothalamus secretes GnRH and it activates the release of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland. A low level of GnRH causes a decrease in FSH and LH, resulting in impaired function of the Sertoli and Leydig cells.31 Ma et al.39 showed that COVID-19 patients had significantly higher serum LH levels but decreased testosterone/LH and FSH levels than healthy men, suggesting potential hypogonadism. Taken together, patients with COVID-19 have been found to present a reduced testosterone/LH ratio, indicating possible subclinical damage to male gonadal function.5 Additionally, activation of the HPGa and subsequent alterations in hormone concentrations play a critical role in poor sperm quality.38
Therefore, besides its direct effects on testis, SARS-CoV-2 may affect fertility indirectly via the central nervous system.31
Like a remote control, for your balls.
In conclusion, all preliminary findings mentioned above suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic affects the male genital system in direct or indirect ways and shows a negative impact on male reproductive health, inducing spermatogenic failure. Additional studies are necessary to answer all the questions and further investigations are warranted, but ACE 2 and TMPRSS2 play an important role in the cellular entry for SARS-CoV-2. As the male genital system presents high ACE 2 expression, the importance of this pathway increases in COVID-19 cases.
Could COVID-19 have an impact on male fertility?
The pandemic caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to several hypotheses of functional alteration of different organs. The direct influence of this virus on the male urogenital organs is still to be evaluated. However some hypotheses can already be made, especially in the andrological field, for the biological similarity of the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2. As well as SARS-CoV, SARS CoV-2 uses the ‘Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2’ (ACE2) as a receptor to enter human cells. It was found that ACE2, Angiotensin (1-7) and its MAS receptors are present, over in the lung, also in the testicles, in particular in Leydig and Sertoli cells. A first hypothesis is that the virus could enter the testicle and lead to alterations in testicular functionality. A second hypothesis is that the binding of the virus to the ACE2 receptor, could cause an excess of ACE2 and give rise to a typical inflammatory response. The inflammatory cells could interfere with the function of Leydig and Sertoli cells. Both hypotheses should be evaluated and confirmed, in order to possibly monitor fertility in patients COVID-19+.
Specific genes relating to male fertility have already been found e.g.
oddly recommended with covid papers?
Male infertility is a rising problem around the world. Often the cause of male infertility is unclear, and this hampers diagnosis and treatment. Spermatogenesis is a complex process under sophisticated regulation by many testis-specific genes. Here, we report the testis-specific gene 1700102P08Rik is conserved in both the human and mouse and highly expressed in spermatocytes. To investigate the role of 1700102P08Rik in male fertility, knockout mice were generated by CRISPR-Cas9. 1700102P08Rik knockout male mice were infertile with smaller testis and epididymis, but female knockout mice retained normal fertility. Spermatogenesis in the 1700102P08Rik knockout male mouse was arrested at the spermatocyte stage, and no sperm were found in the epididymis. The deletion of 1700102P08Rik causes apoptosis in the testis but did not affect the serum concentration of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone or the synapsis and recombination of homologous chromosomes. We also found that 1700102P08Rik is downregulated in spermatocyte arrest in men.
Together, these results indicate that the 1700102P08Rik gene is essential for spermatogenesis and its dysfunction leads to male infertility.
As the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 are reported to be higher in males than females, Shastri et al. performed a study to determine the time to viral clearance after infection in a total of 68 individuals (48 males and 20 females) with median age of 37 years (Shastri et al., 2020).
They observed that females were able to achieve viral clearance significantly earlier than males.
Furthermore, a serial follow-up evaluation of three families with both male and female patients demonstrated that female members of the same household cleared the SARS-CoV-2 infection earlier in each family (Shastri et al., 2020). In order to determine the reason for delayed clearance in males, they also checked the expression of ACE2 in tissue-specific repositories.
It was found that testicular tissues were one of the tissues showing ACE2 expression in 3 independent RNA expression databases (Human Protein Atlas, FAMTOM5 and GETx). Interestingly, the ovarian tissue showed very low expression of ACE2 (Shastri et al., 2020).
so women may be the red herring here
ACE2 and fat study, so expect fatty side effects
Impact of COVID-19 and other viruses on reproductive health
They admit the male HPV link I posted about previously.
Male infertility is linked to some viral infections including human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). Almost nothing is known about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effect on fertility. The possible risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on fertility comes from the abundance of angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2), receptor entry of the virus, on testes, a reduction in important sex hormone ratios and COVID-19-associated fever. Recent studies have shown a gender difference for COVID-19 rates and comorbidity. In this review, we will discuss the potential effect of COVID-19 on male fertility and talk about what needs to be done by the scientific community to tackle our limited understanding of the disease. On the other side, we will focus on what is known so far about the risk of COVID-19 on pregnancy, neonatal health and the vertical transfer of the virus between mothers and their neonates. Finally, because reproduction is a human right and infertility is considered a health disease, we will discuss how assisted reproductive clinics can cope with the pandemic and what guidelines they should follow to minimise the risk of viral transmission.
Remember, viral entry via SPs cause inflammation that might cause sterility? WELL-
Virus entry begins when the virus surface enzyme called Spike (S) glycoprotein binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) located on the host cell membrane (Hoffmann et al., 2020; Wang et al., 2020). S protein contains two different domain regions: S1 and S2, each one has its own role in virus entry. S1 domain is the part that binds directly to the host ACE2 receptor while the S2 domain helps the virus to fuse with the target cell membrane using its functional elements (Glowacka et al., 2011; Hoffmann et al., 2020). This process is also mediated by a Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) located on the surface of the target cell membrane used for the priming of the S protein causing the virus entry (Hoffmann et al., 2020; Shen, Mao, Wu, Tanaka, & Zhang, 2017; Wang et al., 2020).
When the fusion of the virus with the target cell membrane occurs, the virus releases its genome and using the host cell organelles to replicates its RNA and releases new mature virion to target other cells (Boopathi, Poma, & Kolandaivel, 2020; Jiang, Hillyer, & Du, 2020) Figure 1.
wait wait wait the wild virus replicates its RNA too?
minor flex –
3.1 Human papillomavirus (HPV) and its impact on male fertility
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus and sexually transmitted worldwide. In some cases, it causes either warts or precancerous lesions (Ljubojevic & Skerlev, 2014). More than 170 HPV types have been identified and completely sequenced (Chouhy, Bolatti, Pérez, & Giri, 2013). Recent studies suggest that HPV infection affects male fertility. In cases of idiopathic asthenozoospermia, HPV DNA was observed in the sperm cells of infertile patients (Foresta et al., 2010; Lee, Huang, King, & Chan, 2002) confirming its role of infertility. Strong association between HPV infection and impairment of sperm parameters, especially a reduction in sperm motility and concentration, was observed in HPV-infected men (Garolla et al., 2012; Jeršovienė, Gudlevičienė, Rimienė, & Butkauskas, 2019). Garolla and coworkers (Garolla et al., 2012) reported that HPV can bind to the head of a spermatozoon and impair sperm motility in men. Certain sperm DNA exons undergo apoptotic fragmentation on HPV-infected men suggesting that HPV types degrade different exons of important genes (Lee et al., 2002). Collectively, these evidences suggest that HPV plays a role in male factor infertility.
3.2 Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) and their impact on male fertility
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are enveloped DNA viruses of the family Herpesviridae. HSVs include two distinct viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2 (Whitley & Roizman, 2017). HSVs are sexually transmitted and targets reproductive system. HSV-1 causes oral and, occasionally, genital sores while HSV-2 is common cause of genital herpes which may lead to infertility problems in both males and females. HSV DNA was detected in semen from about 50% asymptomatic infertile males (Amirjannati et al., 2014; Bezold et al., 2007; Monavari et al., 2013; Neofytou, Sourvinos, Asmarianaki, Spandidos, & Makrigiannakis, 2009). A strong association of HSV infection and low sperm count, poor motility, and increased apoptotic cells were reported (Monavari et al., 2013). Haematospermia and a lower seminal volume and abnormal viscosity were found in HSV-2-infected males which indicate prostate dysfunction (Kurscheidt et al., 2018). Bezold et al. (2007) reported significantly reduced sperm concentration and motility as well as reduced citrate concentrations and neutral α-glucosidase in HSV-infected males, suggested impaired epididymal and prostate function.
The manwhore diseases are listed alongside HIV, lol.
The wages of sin is death, in men as well as women.
How will PUAs recover? They won’t. God Willing.
The concern show that SARS-CoV-2 may affect male reproductive organ and thus results in male infertility stems from several observations. Early studies both in China and Italy showed that males are more susceptible to COVID-19 compared to females (Guan et al., 2020; Livingston & Bucher, 2020).
A recent large cohort observational study from United Kingdom featuring around 20 thousands COVID-19 patients reported that males represented 60% of cases and considered the male sex as one of the risk factors for COVID-19 (Docherty et al., 2020).
DS: MRAs: crickets
More alarming is the result of a new systematic review—included 48 recently published articles and 16 databases—where it found that men are more likely to suffer or to die from the complications of COVID-19 compared to women (Serge, Vandromme, & Charlotte, 2020).
DS: suffer or die? Binary?
Large proportion of these vulnerable males is in their childbearing age, and thus their reproductive ability can be affected.
Finally, like influenza, COVID-19 patients suffer from fever, which may affect sperm production. It was reported that febrile illnesses had an impact on semen parameters (Sergerie, Mieusset, Croute, Daudin, & Bujan, 2007). Total sperm count and motility percentage were reduced significantly at days 15, 37 after fever episode before going back to normal after several weeks (Sergerie et al., 2007). Increase of sperm DNA fragmentation index and alteration in the nuclear protein composition of ejaculated spermatozoon were reported after fever episode (Evenson, Jost, Corzett, & Balhorn, 2000).
Different viruses use different routes to enter into the host cells. SARS-CoV-2 uses the same ACE2 receptor used by its cousin, the SARS-CoV virus, with the help of TMPRSS2 (see Figure 1). Single cell expression analysis has detected the expression of ACE2 RNA not only in the lung epithelial cells, but also in several other organs, among them are the kidneys and the bladder (Fan et al., 2020; Lin et al., 2020; Tipnis et al., 2000). Protein expression analysis also confirmed the presence of ACE2 protein in multiple tissues (Hamming et al., 2004).
Interestingly, the highest expression of ACE2 was found in the testes (Fan et al., 2020). The high expression of the ACE2 receptor in the testes raises a concern that the SARS-CoV-2 has the route to enter some if not all testicular cells and thus could cause damage.
To further analyse the types of testicular cells vulnerable for SARS-CoV viruses, Wang et al. studied single-celled ACE2 expression in the human testes (Wang & Xu, 2020). They found that ACE2 is mainly expressed in spermatogonia, leyding and Sertoli cell, while spermatocytes and spermatids had very low expression (Wang & Xu, 2020). Interestingly, TMPRSS2 expression is similar to ACE2, where TMPRSS2 was also enriched in spermatogonia and spermatids. It has been also shown that ACE2 positive spermatogonia cells express genes that are important for virus reproduction and transmission, while ACE2 positive leyding and Sertoli cells express genes that are required for cell–cell junctions and immunity.
Collectively, these results highlight the risk of COVID-19 on testicular cells and on the spermatogenesis process.
The only direct evidence for the effect of COVID-19 on male reproductive function comes from a study where sex hormones namely testosterone (T), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) among others were compared between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. While the T level was not different between the two groups, the ratio of T to LH and the ratio of FSH to LH were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients (Ma et al., 2020).
This might be the first direct evidence for the influence of COVID-19 on testicles’ ability to produce sex hormones; however, the results of this study should be followed by a more direct analysis of the seminal fluid of COVID-19 patients to evaluate the effect—if any—on sperm count, volume, morphology or motility. It has been reported that SARS-CoV causes orchitis in addition to other complications (Xu et al., 2006), so it is also possible that SARS-CoV-2 may cause the same complication in males.
Y NO DO THIS ON JABBEES?
And it may kill pregnant women only:
Pregnant women have been shown to be at high risk of comorbidity and mortality related to influenza infections (Rasmussen, Jamieson, & Bresee, 2008; Rasmussen, Jamieson, & Uyeki, 2012). The previous SARS infection showed that pregnant women had higher fatality rate (25%) compared to the general population (10%; Wong et al., 2004). With the rise of numbers of pregnant women and children affected by COVID-19, it is worth to know if pregnant women are a high-risk group for COVID-19 death or increased hospitalisation and also to evaluate the risk of vertical transfer either from the mother to the foetus or from the neonates to the mother.
Neonatal health is another important concern in the COVID-19-infected mothers. In a study from Wuhan, 33 neonates were born to mothers with COVID-19, and no health complications were reported except for shortness in breath in four cases (Zeng et al., 2020). Other studies, including less number of cases, did not report any neonatal health issues except for low birthweight (<2,500 g) and premature delivery (Cao et al., 2020; Chen & Lou, 2020). Two other studies from China and Iran reported two neonatal deaths out of 19 cases studied (Hantoushzadeh et al., 2020; Zhu, Wang, et al., 2020). No cases of miscarriages have been reported in the first trimester of COVID-19 pregnancies. Overall, it seems that neonates delivered by COVID-19 pregnant mothers have no increased risk of clinical complications compared to normal pregnancies and some of the reported neonatal complications could be related to mothers’ overall health status rather than a consequence of COVID-19 infection.
Then why jab them?
The risk of vertical transfer of SARS-CoV-2 between the mother and the foetus is possible knowing that the ACE2 receptor is expressed in the placenta and uterus (Levy et al., 2008); however, most published data do not support this predication as most neonates born for mothers affected by COVID-19 tested negative (Chen et al., 2020; Liu et al., 2020; Yu et al., 2020). A few studies have reported a vertical transfer of SARS-CoV-2 from the mother to the neonates (Hantoushzadeh et al., 2020; Yu et al., 2020), but these studies should be carefully interpreted as they occur less frequently and possibly resulted because of the neonatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2 after delivery.
One way to get you on the hook financially is reproductive tech.
Risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome should be taken very seriously during COVID-19 pandemic crisis and all guidelines clearly stated that reproductive endocrinologists should adopt gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist as a default protocol for ovarian stimulation with GnRH-agonist trigger to minimise the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), hospital admissions and intensive care unit (ICU) occupancy (ASRM; Carugno et al., 2020; ESHRE; JSF).
Isn’t that an endometriosis fertility treatment? Odd. So you’re saying it works?
Many health issues related to COVID-19 have been addressed in this review. Pregnancy and maternal health have been discussed. Many reports have evidences against a direct link between COVID-19 and maternal death. Neonates born to a COVID-19 mothers are not at increased risk of adverse health consequence compared to the ones born for COVID-19-unaffected mothers, and the possibility of viral vertical transfer has not been confirmed. Large cohort studies should be followed to confirm these results; additionally, first-trimester COVID-19 cases should be included and be evaluated for the risk of miscarriages.
The gender difference in COVID-19 incidence, comorbidity and death rates—males are at higher risk—requires prompt actions to understand the source of difference biologically and behaviourally. Viral infection by HPV, HSV, HIVs, HBV, HCV and MuV challenges reproductive health and can be considered as a risk factor for male infertility. These viruses have been detected in semen and can impair testicular function. Some viruses such as HIV, MuV and SARS-CoV are associated with orchitis resulting in male infertility, so it would be interesting to study if SARS-CoV-2 can cause the same problem. Because many males at childbearing age are affected by COVID-19, the high expression of ACE2 receptor in the testes and the association of COVID-19 with fever; a multidimensional andrological translational research project was suggested (Salonia et al., 2020). This project aims to develop international collaboration for data registry, hormonal studies and genomic studies to better understand the sex difference for COVID-19 health-related consequences.
re the endo treatment
GnRH agonists are a group of drugs that have been used to treat women with endometriosis for over 20 years . They are modified versions of a naturally occurring hormone known as gonadotropin releasing hormone, which helps to control the menstrual cycle.
At present, the usual length of treatment with a GnRH agonist is 3–6 months. However, in Germany, 12 months treatment with add-back therapy (5 mg of norethisterone per day) has been approved, and other countries may do the same in the future.