Old men, dead babies

Harsh title? Yes. Accurate? Yes.

Both parental ages factor into miscarriage risk, equally.

https://academic.oup.com/humrep/article/17/6/1649/2919231
Miscarriages occur in teens too so I dunno who is dumb enough to rely on this one variable alone.

37 is the age when maternal age starts to matter for women (depending on family history) if you look at the shift in gradient on the charts (barely any change before) but 40 is the huge risk age in both men and women, as in this study.
“However, the increase in risk was much greater for couples composed of a woman aged ≥35 years and of a man aged ≥40 years.”
Is Human Reproduction not a prestigious enough journal?

The 37/40 thing:
Age and the Risk of Miscarriage
It isn’t sufficiently studied in men but data on paternal age as a factor keeps coming out.
Looks like you can’t just blame the woman again. Takes two to make a baby.
“a dramatic rise starting after age 37, with the steepest increase occurring after age 40.”
“The man’s age matters too. Having a partner over the age of 40 significantly raises the chances of a miscarriage.” Nature doesn’t like old, mutant sperm either.
“Over half of miscarriages are caused by genetic abnormalities.” It isn’t a bad thing, really.
“On average, a woman in her early 20s will have chromosomal abnormalities in about 17% of her eggs” So that’s a really terrible metric considering humans are human. There is always risk.
It’s worse in men than women, so I’m hardly favouring women by opposing this reductionism.
“And as men age, chromosomal defects and point mutations–changes to a single nucleotide in their DNA–become increasingly common.”
Where minors are raped and studied, they tend not to do well either.

Memorize that chart.

A teenager is as bad (at-risk) as a woman with an additional two decades.
You’re still debating less than one percentage point of difference though. Are you autistic?

It’s an interesting variable but hardly everything.

An IVF study


Note: Again, 37 is the magic number.
“While IVF helps many couples overcome their fertility problems, it largely cannot overcome the age-related increase in genetic abnormalities. Without genetically normal sperm and eggs, a viable pregnancy is impossible.”
“Despite this problem, several studies involving couples discordant for age now paint a clear and consistent picture: older prospective fathers raise the risk of miscarriage by about 25-50%. One study found an a 60% increase in the odds of a miscarriage if the father was over 40. Another found a roughly 25% increase in the risk of miscarriage for fathers over the age of 35.”

I guess the Have it All guys can’t read.


As you can clearly see, getting a teenager up the duff would actually be worse.
All things considered.
There are plenty of studies on this but what’s the point?
They basically show the same thing.
No doubt they’ll try to cherry-pick something else to draw focus back onto Boo Women.

A little more then I’ll give up and hope men who value their health listen.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3809297/
“Trends towards increasing paternal age are being observed in the UK as well as USA, due to delay in marriages for attaining better socio-economic stability.”
Fucking feminists. /sarc

Advancing paternal age has been shown to result in subfertility, adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, late foetal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight), birth defects (cleft lip and palate, congenital heart defects), achondroplasia, osteogenesis imperfect , Apert’s syndrome, schizophrenia, childhood cancer (brain cancer, retinoblastoma, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) and adult cancer (breast, prostate and nervous system).3 Possible mechanisms for these problems include single gene mutations, autosomal dominant diseases, structural abnormalities in sperm chromosomes (e.g., reciprocal translocations) and multiple genetic / chromosomal defects. DNA damage in sperm of men aged 36 – 57 years was found to be 3 times that of men less than 35 years”

Good luck blaming females for that.

“The present study has demonstrated that the paternal age more than 35 years was an independent risk factor associated with spontaneous first trimester miscarriages. In order to eliminate the effect of maternal age, which is itself a known risk factor, we selected women between the age of 20 – 35 years, as this is considered to be ideal age for child bearing.”

Yes. 20-35 is the ideal range.


The reproductive system needs time to become stable, women take longer to physically mature (completed by the late twenties).

Paternal age is a factor in disease and infertility, independently.

“They recommend counselling of men more than 40 years of age when seeking pregnancy.
I’m not gloating, my heart goes out to men who waited too long and have to raise, at best, a sickly child. They need to be warned of the risks of waiting just like women do.

“Kleinhaus K et al have studied various age groups and have found father’s age more than 40 years to be significantly associated with spontaneous miscarriage.13 Slama R has also studied age ranges and have found that risk of spontaneous miscarriage showed linear increase in the hazard of spontaneous miscarriage in male age between 20 and 45 years. They also observed that hazard ratio was highest with male age > 45 years compared with 18 – 24 years (HR = 1.87, 95% CI, 1.01 – 3.44).1 Others have used paternal age between 30 to more than 50 years.”

The male system matures before the female, (18, mid-20s). If we’re being nubile about social policy, the wife should be older slightly.

So the ideal female age for motherhood is 20-35, but as we see here, ideal male age for fatherhood is 18-24, up to 30 if we’re pushing it. You’d expect the male age to be earlier since they have more DNA damage over time and shorter lifespans combined with earlier physical maturation.

Biology? Sorry?

Freezing sperm doesn’t last by the way. They go off.

“Studies on paternal age and fertility suggest that male biological clock does exist. Similar to women, advancing paternal age results in negative effects on reproductive outcomes.”
“Klonoff-Cohen also found decreasing pregnancy rate with male age. Pregnancy rate was 53% for men less than or equal to 35 years, 35% for 36 – 40 years and 13% for men > 40 years.”
Again, 35 seems to be the turning point for male infertility. Almost equal to the female 37 downturn but the male peak is earlier because the (greater) damage is cumulative (see next quote) and gamete production is ongoing.

Why do you oldies wanna marry young unless you’re admitting there’s a deleterious effect to counteract?
In future, more studies will look at differences in the under-35 men, between, say, 18-24, 25-29 and 30-35.

We postulate from these studies that damage to sperm accumulates over a man’s lifetime. Sperm making cells continue to divide throughout the man’s life, increasing the chances of mutations. Impaired DNA replication and repair mechanisms and increased DNA fragmentation.
DNA damage could also result from reactive oxygen species formed by alcohol, nicotine and drug abuse.”
The wages of sin.
“According to Aitken RJ’s study, male genital tract infection can result in DNA damage in male germ cells and therefore, increase the rates of miscarriage.”
Oh look, male chastity was logical.

“CONCLUSION
Paternal age more than 35 years was found to be an independent risk factor in spontaneous first trimester miscarriages.”

They haven’t really studied younger in sufficient detail to claim that’s fine though, findings like those mentioned above show <30 is ideal in both sexes, to start.

https://academic.oup.com/humupd/article/16/1/65/705193
There a section called “Paternal age and infections”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125283/
“In this Opinion piece we argue that the tendency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to cause infertility is likely to reflect an evolutionary adaptation of the pathogens. We use an evolutionary perspective to understand how STI pathogens may benefit from reducing fertility in the host and what clues the mechanisms of pathogenesis can offer to the evolution of this ability. While we concentrate on human infections, we will also briefly discuss the broader context of STI-induced infertility in other species.

STIs are a common cause of human infertility worldwide…”
No, men can’t sow any wild oats.

No such thing.

“Reduced fertility and an increased risk of complications during and following pregnancy both contribute to reduced reproductive success in the host—and may benefit the sexually transmitted pathogen by destabilizing partnerships and increasing promiscuity.”
The microbes in your urethra are thinking for you.

Not even your dick.

This does explain gay culture. Wow, gay germ theory gets everywhere. This also explains their fetish for fluids and pozzing parties. At least they’re somewhat aware of it.

“Not only are highly promiscuous individuals exposed to a higher risk of acquiring STIs, but STIs may also actively generate hubs of transmission in a vicious circle of promiscuity and infertility: in traditional societies,”
It’s anti-natal and terrible for society.
You can’t leave behind a life of sin.

Also liberal fertility rates make a lot more sense right about now. It is a bug, and it is a feature!

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/pass-it-on-children-can-inherit-herpes/
STDs can be passed on at conception, which explains the first trimester paternal age miscarriage finding, the older you get, the more diseases infect the body.
A direct study hasn’t been conducted yet – sexual infection history and miscarriage.
Could it find funding?

Doubtful. Even if it looked at both parents.

Onward, to computer modelling!

Sim City; Sin City Edition.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/apr/12/stis-may-have-driven-ancient-humans-to-monogamy-study-says
“Writing in the journal Nature Communications, Bauch and his colleague Richard McElreath from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany, describe how they built a computer model to explore how bacterial sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis that can cause infertility, affected populations of different sizes. The authors considered both small hunter gatherer-like populations of around 30 individuals and large agricultural-like populations of up to 300 individuals, running 2,000 simulations for each that covered a period of 30,000 years.

In small polygynous communities, the researchers found that outbreaks of such STIs were short-lived, allowing the polygynous population to bounce back. With their offspring outnumbering those from monogamous individuals, polygyny remained the primary modus operandi.

[coughs in r-selection]

But when the team looked at the impact of STIs on larger polygynous societies, they found a very different effect. Instead of clearing quickly, diseases such as chlamydia and gonorrhea became endemic. As a result, the population plummeted and monogamists, who did not have multiple partners, became top dog.

[hums in Malthusian tones]

The team also found that while monogamists who didn’t ‘punish’ polygyny could gain a temporary foothold, it was monogamists that ‘punished’ polygyny – often at their own expense of resources – that were the most successful.

[religion is evolutionally fit]

[K-types FTW and for discrimination based on self-protection]

While the form of such punishments were not specified in the model, Bauch suggests fines or social ostracisation among the possible penalties.

[stop paying for their babies and STD treatments? FIRSTLY?]
[kinda like how prison was meant to keep you from breeding – a genetic death penalty – until you dummies invented welfare for their women and conjugal rights, making the whole thing useless]

The results, they say, reveal that STIs could have played a role in the development of socially imposed monogamy that coincided with the rise of large communities that revolved around agriculture.”

Socially imposed?

Well, he had to get published I suppose.

The social/cultural clearly comes after the rest. Like, the die-offs?

Civilization has and always will be K-selected. 

Many diseases passed via semen

Well, duh.

It’s almost like the profligate man is being punished.

http://uk.businessinsider.com/viruses-sexually-transmitted-diseases-std-semen-2017-9

Almost like Darwin or God or some other force hates the promiscuous.
If only we had confirmation in a book of some kind…

You can’t get more unnatural than Nature literally trying to kill you for it.

Anyone who says sex as sport and hypersexuality is healthy needs their head examined too.

After a team of British researchers found bits of Zika virus lingering in the semen of men whose symptoms had cleared months before, they began to wonder: What other viruses hide out in unsuspecting parts of the body?

PSA:

Men carry diseases in their urethra.

It never leaves.

It becomes part of them, fused, since the urethra is part of the microbiome.

Even oral requires barrier methods to account for this.

At least 27, according to a report published Wednesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These include viruses that have been at the center of recent epidemics, like Ebola and Marburg, as well as viruses like mumps and adenovirus, which can cause a version of the common cold.

“This really raises the question of what is the definition of an STD,” Fenyong Liu, a professor in the division of infectious diseases at the University of California Berkeley School of Public Health who was not involved with the new report, told Business Insider.

The viruses appear to take advantage of one of the body’s key protective mechanisms, a phenomenon known as immune privilege. Certain parts of the body, like the eyes, are essentially no-fly zones for the immune system’s defense armies. They are shielded from inflammation to protect more critical functions like vision. Similarly, it’s believed that some reproductive organs may be immune privileged to protect sperm or eggs.

Some. Not all. Many en route parts are incredibly vulnerable. Don’t lie.

And that theory has really been debunked if you look at the clap-infertility rates. HPV’s gonna be a fun one to publish once the full picture of data comes in.
They just become infertile or the germline is diseased, also see paternal age studies because the male urethra is an incubator of sorts (poor hygiene, no barrier in oral, it’s passed to the mother of their child when caught from a stripper 18 years prior, that sort of thing). The WW emphasis on male chastity was to protect their wives from birth defects from retardation all the way up to miscarriage. Look it up.

It’s old, established science.

But this immune privilege may also serve as a foothold for a disease-causing virus like Ebola or Marburg, which the new study finds can remain in human semen for surprisingly long stretches of time. Here, the immune system can’t touch them.

No.

It assists in mutation rate, or else they’d die. Microbes need a certain environment to live, remember. They are alive.

Mutation rate is sped up in the absence of overt immune clearing.

Money shot paragraph

Typically in the event of a viral outbreak, physicians and public health experts urge people to stay away from anyone who is infected for several weeks, paying particular attention to things like saliva and blood. The new study suggests this may not be enough. In some cases, viruses can persist for as many as 565 days in semen, meaning that an infected person could theoretically remain contagious for up to several months after they come down with one of the viruses.

*Anonymous Conservative cheers*

“Clinicians and researchers need to consider the possibility that traditionally ‘non-sexually transmitted’ viruses can persist in semen, and this therefore raises the possibility of sexual transmission,” Alex Salam, the lead author on the paper and a clinician and clinical researcher for the United Kingdom Public Health Rapid Support Team, told Business Insider.

Possibility?

POSSibility?

Traditionally?

There’s no ‘traditionally’ in biomedical research, bitch!

There is WRONG.

Although the researchers found pieces of the genetic material of these viruses, including Lassa fever, Epstein-Barr, and varicella zoster (the virus that causes the chicken pox), that doesn’t necessarily mean that the virus could be transmitted sexually. To find out if that is the case, they’ll need more research.

It’s there but you can’t catch it?

Sorry, do you also abide by the 10 second rule?

Do you believe in alpha STD protection?

Because bleaching your balls sounds perfectly healthy.
Fucking around with strangers for years, that’s perfectly safe!

According to…. feminists. Ah.

In the past, it was unclear how several viruses on the list could spread.

And it isn’t now you literally found out where it’s been hiding?

BK virus, for example, was thought to spread from person to person through respiratory fluids or urine, but the new study suggests that it can also be passed on through semen.

So men who refuse a condom are a public health hazard. Check.
And the taxpayer fits the bill yet again….

“This should raise people’s awareness that even though they might contract a respiratory illness or something that effects the lungs, it could potentially be spread through an entirely different part of the body like the semen,” said Liu.

Yet another reason rape confers the death penalty in religion.

Because it can easily be a death sentence. Damn, this book keeps getting proven true.

To come up with their list, researchers combed the scientific literature and found nearly 4,000 published papers that documented evidence of viruses whose genetic material had ended up in semen.

Needs research, they say, hands already extended and rubbing their fingertips.

No idea how it got there. Right.
Ended up in an exclusively single function place. No suspected cause. In science. K.

In addition to the 27 viruses they found, the researchers also discovered the genetic material of several other viruses, such as dengue, SARS, and smallpox, in human testes. There isn’t enough evidence yet to say if these viruses would also be present in semen, however.

Diseased testes, oh Darwin, you’ve had so many last laughs.

Lots of questions about the viruses remain. The most pressing is whether or not they could all be sexually transmitted to a new host. The researchers also want to know how long the viruses remain in semen and in what concentrations, as well as how their presence might impact sperm and male fertility more broadly.

I predict well. It’s gonna be great for fertility because the host is a whore. However, child survival rates will go down, as will health quality of the children. Paradoxically, infertility rates will also be far higher.
This does make consent yet still a larger looming issue, legally.

What if someone gives you an STD that makes you infertile? Gives you cancer?
Legally, they are responsible.

“This brings up more questions than it answers — and that’s fascinating,” Liu said.

Sex positive flags are for sale.

Botox balls

Exactly what it sounds like.

http://www.cosmopolitan.co.uk/body/news/a46119/men-injecting-botox-balls-scrotox/

They don’t get to call women vain anymore.

With any luck, they’ll render themselves infertile.

omg why no facepalm god ugh wut

Of course, porn has nothing to do with this.

Porn has done nothing wrong.

And in New Excuses for Cheaters news

http://www.cosmopolitan.co.uk/body/health/news/a46117/sunbeds-found-to-pass-stis-users/

Yeah, refusing to disclose STDs is illegal here

I keep seeing the myth that it’s fine if it isn’t HIV.

Erm, nope. Damaging STD, and considering the cancer risk, miscarriage/birth defect odds and lifelong reputation damage, that’s basically all of them.

http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/h_to_k/intentional_or_reckless_sexual_transmission_of_infection_guidance/#Relevant

And that’s why PUAs hate the UK.

The courts have recognised that person-to-person transmission of a sexual infection that will have serious, perhaps life-threatening, consequences for the infected person’s health can amount to grievous bodily harm under the Offences against the Person Act 1861: R v Dica [2004] 2 Cr. App. R. 28. Therefore, the transmission of that infection can constitute the offence of inflicting or causing grievous bodily harm, which when intentional can attract a sentence of life imprisonment.

The relevant offences for a prosecutor to consider are under sections 18 and 20 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861.

Malicious, reckless, aforethought are relevant terms here.
Not using a condom extends the sentence, not informing them of sleeping with third parties that also carry it (current risk level is assessed) will also count (so you can’t blame third party for the risk piggie in the middle willingly took on and spread).
More STDs, higher sentence, longer duration spreading it around, higher sentence, bragging about it or apathy, higher sentence.

We’re civilized.

And if they’d still give consent when informed (aka when it counts) then why not inform them?

Eating is natural. Presenting someone with adulterated food is still illegal.

Study: Victorian health

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2672390/

Are we better off?

What Did the Victorians Ever Do for Us?

The implications of the mid-Victorian story are far-reaching, because, unlike the paleolithic scenario, details of the mid-Victorian lifestyle and its impact on public health are extensively documented. Thus, the mid-Victorian experience clearly shows us that:

  1. Degenerative diseases are not caused by old age (the ‘wear and tear’ hypothesis); but are driven, in the main, by chronic malnutrition. Our low energy lifestyles leave us depleted in anabolic and anti-catabolic co-factors; and this imbalance is compounded by excessive intakes of inflammatory compounds. The current epidemic of degenerative disease is caused by widespread problem of multiple micro- and phyto-nutrient depletion (Type B malnutrition.)
  2. With the exception of family planning and antibiotics, the vast edifice of twentieth century healthcare has generated little more than tools to suppress symptoms of the degenerative diseases which have emerged due to our failure to maintain mid-Victorian nutritional standards.
  3. The only way to combat the adverse effects of Type B malnutrition, and to prevent and / or cure degenerative disease, is to enhance the nutrient density of the modern diet.

Restore, actually.
The nutrient profile of modern food is inexcusable.
It’s literally killing us.

More food than ever, and we’re the malnourished ones. Some progress.

Part of it is vitamin or mineral leaching, caused by bad habits such as alcoholism.

A third or more of households were temperate or teetotal, partly due to the sustained efforts of the anti-alcohol movement.

To end, the sex-positive sluts won’t like this one.

How the Mid-Victorians Died

Common causes of death [65,66]

  1. Infection including TB and other lung infections such as pneumonia; epidemics (scarlet fever, smallpox, influenza, typhoid, cholera etc), with spread often linked to poor sanitation: and the sexually transmitted diseases.

Mentioned in passing as if the most obvious cause in the world.
With antibiotic resistance returning, this will return too. Famine, disease, death.

STD-free blood tests before marriage kept it good

I was rather shocked to hear from an American that some states (increasingly few) require a blood test (historically from the man, but now both parties) and a physical examination (of the man, historically) prior to granting a marriage certificate. I was shocked because 1. it’s a brilliant idea and 2. they’re phasing it out and 3. we have no equivalent in Europe…

One of my most popular posts was “Which laws kept marriage intact?” – found here. This information feeds into that topic.

Historically, all women would be presumed virgins before marriage (and in a time without ready contraception, not being pregnant was a reliable sign). However, men were presumed cads until proven otherwise  (to the father of the bride too, the patriarch) and had to prove themselves – in a way they couldn’t lie. Sure beats a lie detector. It single-handedly eliminated public health risks before they began in the population. This kept women safe from the pain, suffering of what we now call STDs, miscarriage and probable death that VD could and continues to cause on a pregnancy, as well as checking Rh factors (when negative in a female but positive in the fetus, from the father, this incompatibility causes miscarriage). Rh factors were a latter addition in need of medical forewarning (all marriages being fertile) and the original reason was to check the man was as respectable as he claimed (illegal to deceive under False Light and Misrepresentation). I suppose it would make wicked court evidence. If he visited prostitutes or slept around, he would fail the test and the marriage would be cancelled. In this way, r-types were forbidden from tasting the benefits of K-partner marriage. Here here. It’s easy to speak of protecting women and a good woman’s place in a stable marriage – but hard for the all-talk crowd to come to the logical conclusion: this means protecting them from deceptive men. Which often includes themselves. #burn #partoftheproblem

In short, women weren’t the only ones expected to prove their virtue prior to marriage. That is a myth.

lolmaletears

The manosphere manwhores don’t seem intent on covering this sort of information for some strange reason.

bbc sherlock moriarty eyebrow flash closeup lol flirt really rlly

I did a little digging for UK information and all I could find in public domain was;
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/268020/marriage.pdf

A few notes before I go on this paper.
Check this first line, the most vital point before we proceed.

1.1 To be valid, all marriages which take place in the United Kingdom must be: • Monogamous

I guess that upsets the human filth who plan on getting married and cheating too, with pathetic excuses that marriage has always been that way (clearly wrong) and they ‘can’t help it’ appeals to weakness covered in the final paragraph here: https://disenchantedscholar.wordpress.com/2015/04/10/if-you-cheat-on-your-wife-you-deserve-to-be-divorce-raped/ Pardon me for believing that men have presumed agency and legal personhood. The American legal system is based on the English common law in case you didn’t know so this all counts.

Under section 14.3.1 Voidable marriage

Under s.12 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973, a marriage celebrated on or after 31 July 1971 shall be voidable on the grounds that:…

at the time of the marriage the respondent was suffering from venereal disease in a communicable form;

Bad news, sluts!

snort lol laugh haha hmph derision yeah duh really uhuh mhmm princess bride

It’s almost like the marriage laws are defined (as is marriage altogether) by the K-types who enter it and specifically written by the K-Patriarchs who wanted to protect their daughters from the likes of you. It isn’t all bad however, because a similar provision is made for the protection of fiances, their sons.

or at the time of the marriage the respondent was pregnant by some person other than the petitioner

I just.... I don't even know what to....what??

Nope, a bitch about how the system supposedly favours women doesn’t fly. It’s a K-law that eliminates the r-type genes from the high investment pool of options. You’re inferior, you chose it, you made your bed. Lie in it.

I shouldn't get this happy over old papers but I do

We should look toward more of the same legal protections if we want to fix the broken modern system of marriage.

Classic 4chan: There are two glasses

Because it’s popular on TV, like blowjobs before that. You’re just as much lemmings as women buying celebrity lines and there’s a false bravado in talking a woman into it (except there isn’t, only the skanks will do it, like most things in porn). A real man learns something male-focused, like tantra. Those guys are like Sex Jedi. As with the rise of oral cancers, there’s a scale of health to abnormal practices and anal is pretty much the worst thing a person could do (rimming is included). It’s Nature’s Petri Dish. If you made a cocktail (sorry) grown from 1% of the sample in the girl they wanna try it on, they wouldn’t stick their dick in it for any money, it’s like drinking from a toilet. The natural disgust reflex has been overcome like the drug-fueled reality of gay culture has been overcome with sober musical theater numbers. If they make you a little bit gay (they’re pushing for men to ‘try it‘ now), how can you question them? You can’t judge. You can’t make any of those classic jokes about it. In short, you don’t get to complain when you get prostate problems or seemingly random infections, like a homo. Eventually this posterior focus turns you into this guy.

Technically, your sexuality is what body parts you’re attracted to (which vary based on the other type of sex). If you choose A over V, I’ve got news for you… If you could do it with a man, arguably it’s homosexual sex. I await the hate, I expect the hate for simply pointing this out, but you did it, dudebros. You tore up your Man Card like the pederasts of Ancient Greece (bc the young boys looked like girls from behind). I hope you get a lot of checks. Please get tested frequently.

dean that's enough no more internet laptop shut no no no nuhuh supernatural

n.b. STD is a latent disease, you’ve got it but your immune system keeps it in check. It’s part of your microbiome now. STI is active infection and requires meds to drop it back to the level of a regular STD. Rarely does it clear from your system, if ever. It can be a hidden factor in male fertility, fucking up your man pipes.